15 May 2017

English Practice Questions with Explanation Based on New Pattern (Appropriate Sentence For Paragraph)

English Practice Questions with Explanation (Based on New Pattern)
[Dated: 15th May] English Practice Questions with Explanation (Appropriate Sentence For ParagraphSet-50:
Dear Readers, Here we have given the Practice English Questions with explanation based on new pattern, candidates those who are preparing for upcoming examination can make use of it.

Direction (Q. 1 - 10): In each of the following questions, a short passage is given with one of the lines in the passage is missing and represented by a blank. Select the best out of the five answer choices given to make the passage complete and coherent.

1). When elections draw near, rivalries within parties intensify. As Karnataka prepares for next year’s Assembly poll, front-line leaders of the two principal contenders for power, the Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party, have begun pressuring their national leaderships for a bigger say in ticket distribution and in the election campaign. ________________________. Mr. Yeddyurappa, who managed to extricate himself from the legal tangles that arose out of corruption cases, is the frontrunner for the chief minister’s post in case the BJP wins.
a)    In the Congress too, the leadership issue is more or less settled.
b)    But factional pressures and caste dynamics are in full play as the process of identifying a person for the post of president of the Karnataka Pradesh Congress Committee rolls on.
c)    In the BJP, the factional fight is between the State unit president and former Chief Minister, B.S. Yeddyurappa, and senior leader K.S. Eshwarappa.
d)    In any case, in the latest round of by-elections he held his own against a marauding BJP.
e)    Even if Mr. Siddaramaiah’s rivals are willing to reluctantly accept his candidature for chief minister-ship, they are likely to want someone who could stand up to him as the next KPCC president.

2). Two decades after signing the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, India is yet to ratify it. There can be little justification for such a prolonged delay in passing legislation to give effect to the convention. In recent times there is a fresh note of urgency attached to the need for early ratification, as the country has pending requests for the extradition of its nationals from other countries. ____________________________. Such a law may be in the national interest, the Chief Justice of India observed during the course of a hearing on a public interest petition seeking the enactment of an anti-torture law in accordance with the country’s commitment.
a)    Given the pervasive nature of custodial violence and its complex policing requirements, the present legislative and administrative framework is obviously inadequate to prevent torture in a country of India’s size.
b)    For, as pointed out by the Supreme Court, the absence of a stand-alone law prohibiting torture may prevent many countries from agreeing to India’s extradition requests.
c)    However, the idea of a stand-alone law ought to be ultimately seen as a more tangible way of expressing commitment to eliminating torture.
d)    Provisions relating to causing hurt or grievous hurt, especially with a view to extracting a confession, criminal intimidation and wrongful confinement already exist in the Indian Penal Code.
e)    The government now says it has referred the matter to the Law Commission for an authoritative view.

3). __________________________. Mr. Moon won 41% of the vote, almost double that of his nearest rival. In the wake of the polarising tenure of his predecessor, Park Geun-hye, who was ousted through the impeachment route, he appeared conciliatory during the election campaign, emphasising the need to move on. Indications of Mr. Moon’s willingness to engage with the troubling issues in the region came after he was sworn in on Wednesday, when he declared his intention to visit Pyongyang and hold discussions with Washington, Beijing and Tokyo.
a)    Assuaging such Chinese fears will not be easy and Beijing would like nothing less than the complete withdrawal of the defence shield.
b)    Mr. Moon’s other big regional challenge is the U.S.-backed installation of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defence (THAAD) anti-missile system on South Korean soil.
c)    At home, Seoul has in recent months been rocked by the influence-peddling scandal involving Ms. Park and executives from top business houses, leading to her eventual ouster.
d)    In realising that unenviable task, Mr. Moon can count on a demonstrably vibrant and independent judiciary and an effective parliament.
e)    The election of the moderate Moon Jae-in as South Korea’s President marks a decisive break from the bitter divisions and scandals that unsettled the country’s administrative and political equilibrium in recent months.

4). Madhya Pradesh has decided to shift its financial year that now runs from April 1 to March 31, to align it with the Gregorian calendar year - that is, January 1 to December 31. The idea is not new and has been floated a few times, before as well as after Independence. Yet, the M.P. government’s move is abrupt as there was no hint of this plan when it presented its 2017-18 Budget a couple of months ago. _____________________.
a)    Its recommendations are still not in the public domain.
b)    The Centre must make the Shankar Acharya panel report public, and clarify its own road map so that States and taxpayers may align with it.
c)    The Union Budget was shifted from February 28 to February 1 this year, to ensure that funds are available with ministries from the first day of the financial year.
d)    That it was announced less than 10 days after Prime Minister Narendra Modi asked Chief Ministers to ‘take the initiative’ on a suggestion to change the financial year indicates that the desire to be the first to act on his words accounts for the haste
e)    On its part, the Centre had appointed a committee under former Chief Economic Adviser Shankar Acharya on the desirability and feasibility of changing the fiscal year in line with the calendar year, aligning it with the practice in most countries as well as multilateral agencies.

5). Finance Minister Arun Jaitley has demanded reforms to the International Monetary Fund’s controversial quota system, shedding light on the problems facing the Bretton Woods institution in today’s global economy. Quotas determine the size of contingency funds at the disposal of the IMF to lend to countries in need of help, as well as the power of individual countries to influence lending decisions and tap into the funds themselves. _____________________. In this context, speaking at the spring meetings of the IMF, Mr. Jaitley reiterated the need to reform the quota system further. Else, he warned, the legitimacy and credibility of the IMF could be eroded.
a)    Also at stake is the potency of the IMF in keeping up with the changed fundamental needs of developing economies.
b)    Though developing countries hold less than half the overall quota at the moment, with their rapidly increasing economic heft they have demanded a greater share - with limited success.
c)    China, for instance, with its steadily rising influence on the global economy, has grown to be the focal point for economies seeking alternative sources of capital to fund their long-term growth needs.
d)    In this environment of competition, the IMF will have to do more than just superficially tinker with its asymmetric power structure and outdated quota system.
e)    The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, launched in 2014, could be an even bigger threat to the IMF’s influence given its larger membership, lending capacity and international reach.

6). Bhutan’s announcement that it is unable to proceed with the Motor Vehicles Agreement with Bangladesh, India and Nepal is a road block, and not a dead end, for the regional sub-grouping India had planned for ease of access among the four countries. The sub-grouping, BBIN as it is referred to, was an alternative mooted by the government after Pakistan rejected the MVA at the SAARC summit in Kathmandu in 2014. __________________________. Of the other SAARC members, Sri Lanka and the Maldives are not connected by land, and Afghanistan could only be connected if Pakistan was on board. Down to just three countries now after Thimphu’s decision, India, Nepal and Bangladesh will have to decide whether to wait for Bhutan to reconsider or to press ahead with a truncated ‘BIN’ arrangement.
a)    It seeks to allow trucks and other commercial vehicles to ply on one another’s highways to facilitate trade.
b)    The main concern expressed by Bhutanese citizen groups and politicians is over increased vehicular and air pollution in a country that prides itself on ecological consciousness.
c)    Perhaps, Bhutan’s objections may even spur an overhaul of emission standards for trucks currently plying in India, Nepal and Bangladesh.
d)    Above all, the BBIN pact denotes a “can-do” attitude on India’s part, as it shows a willingness to broaden its connectivity canvas with all countries willing to go ahead at present, leaving the door open for those that may opt to join in the future.
e)    Dry runs have been conducted along the routes, and officials estimate the road links could end up circumventing circuitous shipping routes by up to 1,000 km.

7). U. S. President Donald Trump’s tax plan, released as a brief one-page document this week, promises some bold reforms to rejuvenate America’s sluggish economy. Weak private investment spending has been at the heart of what is now dubbed the slowest U.S. economic recovery in the post-War era, which has been coupled with a serious slump in productivity. The plan does well in attempting to address basic structural problems that have held back the American private sector. _______________________. The Trump administration has proposed steep cuts to the corporate tax rate (from 35% to just 15%), a significant reduction and simplification of the individual income tax, a doubling of standard tax deductions, and the scrapping of the wealth tax and the alternative minimum tax.
a)    However, its eventual success in reviving growth and productivity will depend on the extent to which its benefits trickle down from the balance sheets of big business to the real economy.
b)    Mr. Trump’s bullish stance on infrastructure and military spending also suggests he is unlikely to reduce spending.
c)    In this context, another relevant issue is the administration’s own spending plans.
d)    Most recently, U.S. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin argued that higher growth will help compensate for the revenue loss from tax cuts, suggesting a spending cut may not be on the cards.
e)    The cut in the corporate tax alone is estimated to cost over $2 trillion, and overall the plan could lead to anywhere between $3 trillion and $7 trillion in lost revenue over the next 10 years.

8). Infosys’s decision to hire 10,000 local workers in the U.S. has caused concerns over the impact of President Donald Trump’s restrictive visa policy for skilled workers. Explaining the move, Infosys CEO Vishal Sikka said it is purely a business decision focused on building the company’s capabilities in fields such as artificial intelligence and cloud computing. Indian IT companies have been under pressure to adapt nimbly to the restrictive visa regimes being put in place not just in the U.S. but also in key markets such as the U.K. and Australia. _______________________. In 2015-16, for instance, Infosys hired 2,144 people in the Americas, increasing its workforce in the region by over a quarter.
a)    The economic rationale behind the free movement of labour is that it promotes economic efficiency.
b)    Sadly, since the benefits of globalisation are diffused among billions of people while its costs are concentrated on a smaller but organised group, such adjustments often end up validating populist, protectionist policies.
c)    As a matter of fact, these companies had been gearing up to become visa-independent even before Mr. Trump’s rise to power.
d)    In any case, job losses owing to automation are likely to accelerate, which is of course not an issue that affects the IT sector alone.
e)    It is obvious that the tightening of immigration is likely to have a net negative effect on the global economy.

9). Ransomware is a form of malicious software that locks up the files on your computer, encrypts them, and demands that you pay to get your files back. Wanna Decryptor, or WannaCry, is a form of ransomware that affects Microsoft’s Windows operating system. When a system is infected, a pop up window appears, prompting you to pay to recover all your files within three days, with a countdown timer on the left of the window. _____________________. Payment is accepted only with Bitcoin.
a)    The best way to protect your computer is to create regular backups of your files. The malware only affects files that exist in the computer.
b)    Over 75,000 systems have been affected. Major companies that have reported attacks are FedEx, Telefonica and National Health Service (UK).
c)    Some forms of malware can lock the computer entirely, or set off a series of pop-ups that are nearly impossible to close, thereby hindering your work.
d)    It adds that if you fail to pay within that time, the fee will be doubled, and if you don’t pay within seven days, you will lose the files forever.
e)    It is believe that the cyber attack was carried out with the help of tools stolen from the National Security Agency (NSA) of the United States.

10). President Donald Trump’s decision to fire James Comey as the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation at a time when the agency is expanding a probe into the possible collusion between Mr. Trump’s campaign team and Moscow could well be a turning point in a scandal that is engulfing his administration. No incumbent of the White House since Richard Nixon has fired a top law enforcement official probing the President or his close aides. ____________________. The reason Mr. Trump has given for ousting Mr. Comey is hardly convincing. The administration accuses Mr. Comey of having been unfair to Hillary Clinton, Mr. Trump’s Democratic opponent, in an investigation concerning her private email server while serving as Secretary of State, and of incompetence.
a)    Other Trump associates, such as Paul Manafort, Carter Page and Roger Stone, also face accusations in the scandal.
b)    The Comey firing has, in fact, taken him closer to Russiagate, which he had tried so hard over the past three months to distance himself from.
c)    This reinforces the perception that Mr. Trump was wary of the investigation and that he fired Mr. Comey to stop, or at least disrupt, the process.
d)    Jeff Sessions, his Attorney General, has recused himself from the Russia probe, given his past ties to Moscow.
e)    Nixon’s decision to sack the special prosecutor investigating the Watergate scandal backfired, unleashing a chain of events that led to his eventual resignation.

Explanation With Answer Key:
1). Answer: c)
Option c) is correct answer since the passage is explaining about the facts about election in Karnataka state. The previous and next statement to the blank describes about the election poll & campaign of two parties (BJP and Congress) and also about Mr. Yeddyurappa & his management respectively. So, option c) is opt for blank since it explains about the BJP and fight between its members.

2). Answer: b)
Option b) is correct answer since the paragraph is describing about the rules and laws by UN against torture and some other factors. The next statement of the blank explains about law. So there is a chance for both option b) and c). But the previous statement to blank explains about extradition requests. But option b) is fit to the blank and makes the paragraph coherent since it describes about the law which prohibits torture.

3). Answer: e)
Option e) is correct answer since in the passage it is explaining about the challenges faced by South Korea’s President. So, option e) suits the blank, as it talks about level of election, decisive break by South Korea’s President and other factors.

4). Answer: d)
Option d) is correct answer since the paragraph is giving details about transferring of FY in Madhya Pradesh. So, option d) is fit to the blank and makes the paragraph coherent since it describes about the reason behind the transfer of financial year.

5). Answer: b)
Option b) is correct answer since the paragraph is describing about quota system in IMF. In the previous statement of blank, the disposal of fund to different countries is explained. So, option b) is opt for the blank since it explains about the amount of quota taken by developing countries.

6).Answer: a)
Option a) is correct answer since the passage is explaining about Bhutan’s exit from the ‘BBIN’ agreement. In the previous statement of blank, rejection of MVA by Pakistan is described. So, option a) is opt for the blank as it explains about reason behind the rejection of MVA by Pakistan.

7). Answer: a)
Option a) is correct answer since in the passage it is explaining about the success of Trump’s tax plan. The previous statements to the blank describes about the success in his productivity plan. So, option a) will give a coherent passage since it describes about the reason for success in productivity i.e. benefits from the balance sheets of big business.

8). Answer: c)
Option c) is correct answer since in the passage it is explaining about adaptation of IT companies to new visa regimes by Trump. The previous statements to the blank describes about the pressure of IT companies to adapt for visa regimes by different countries. So, option c) will give a coherent passage since it describes about the companies’ forecast about visa - independent.

9). Answer: d)
Option d) is correct answer since the passage is explaining about Ransomware and its effects on system. As the previous statement says that what one has to do to recover files, option d) is opt for blank since it is explaining about the thing when we failed to recover the files.

10). Answer: e)

Option e) is correct answer since the passage is explaining about the reason behind Trump’s decision to fire James Comey. As the previous statement says about firing of a top law enforcement by Richard Nixon; so, option e) is opt for blank since it talks about the decision of Nixon to sack the special prosecutor investigation.

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