15 Jun 2017

Crack English Session (Day-7): Important Tips to Attend Error Spotting with Exercise Questions [Explanation Updated]

Crack English Session (Day-7): Important Tips to Attend Error Spotting with Exercise Questions:
Dear Aspirants, In Today’s Session we are going to discuss about the Important Tips to Attend Error Spotting with Exercise Questions based on usage of VERB. Candidates those who are preparing for upcoming SBI Clerk / IBPS Exams 2017 and all other competitive exams can use this.


VERB is an action word. It indicates the action (tense) or state of being of the subject. Eg: The tiger killed a deer.

PRIMARY AUXILIARIES:
The verbs used to form negatives; questions and tenses.

Be form: ‘Be’ is added to other words to make progressive and passive forms.
Eg : Be considerate to others.
       Is it raining?
       She was imprisoned for three years.                                            
Tense
Singular
Plural
Present
Am, Is
Are
Past
Was
Were

Do form: ‘Do’ is used to make questions, negatives and emphatic forms of non-auxiliary verbs.
Eg : Do you smoke?
      It didn’t matter.
     Do come in.
Tense
Singular
Plural
Present
Do
Does
Past
Did

Have form: ‘Have’ is used to make perfect forms.
Eg : What have you done?
       I hadn’t turn the lights off.
Tense
Singular
Plural
Present
Have
Has
Past
Had



Modal Auxiliaries: The verbs are used before the infinitives of other verbs and add certain kinds of meaning connected with certainly or with obligation and freedom to act.

FULL MODALS:
Modal Auxiliaries
Meanings/Functions
Can
Ability, permission, request, possibility.

Could
Ability, formal request, possibility.

Shall
Futurity, willingness, intention, suggestion, insistence.
Should
Obligation, necessity, expectation, advisability.

Will
Willingness, intention, prediction, insistence.

Would
Willingness, habitual action in the past, probability, wish, desire.
May
Permission, possibility, wish, purpose.

Might
Permission, possibility, probability.

Must
Compulsion, obligation, deduction, certainty.


Present
Past
Will
Would
Can
Could
Shall
Should
May
Might
Must
Had to

Eg: I can lift this box.
      He could drive the car once.
      I shall come tomorrow.
      Should I take leave of?
      I will come with you.
      I would attend your birthday.
      It may rain.
      He might get the ticket.
      He must leave now.

Semi modals / Quasi modals: Some auxiliaries are partly like a modal verb and partly like a main verb are called semi / quasi modals.
SEMI/QUASI MODALS
MEANINGS / FUNCTIONS
Ought to
Moral obligation, probability, certainty
Used to
Discontinued habit
Need
Necessity, obligation,(used in negatives and questions)
Dare
Defiance, challenge, boldness(used in negatives and interrogatives)

Eg: The train ought to leave now.
      He ought to speak.
      I used to drink coffee when I was young.
      I need to come.
     How dare you speak to me!

FINITE AND NON- FINITE VERBS:
FINITE VERBS: It is a verb which takes an object. In other words it will be taken in SVO pattern. It can be converted into passive voice.
Eg: My uncle helps me.
NON- FINITE VERBS:  It is a verb, which has no object. It cannot be converted into passive voice. It has SVA pattern.
Eg: She likes to sing.

CONCORD:
(AGREEMENT OF VERB WITH THE SUBJECT)
CONCORD:  The verb must agree with the subject in person and number.
Rule 1: (i)if the subject is singular in number use verb accordingly.
Eg: Punam acts well.
(ii) if the subject is plural in number use verb accordingly.
Eg: They approach nicely.
Rule 2: If 2 or more subjects are connected by ‘and’, they mostly take a verb in the plural form.
Eg: Neha and Sneha  are classmates.
Rule 3: If ‘each’ or ‘every’ precedes singular objects , the verb should be in the singular.
Eg: Every boy has a book.
Rule 4: Two or more singular subjects connected by ‘Either…or’ take a verb in the singular.
Eg: Either you or I am wrong.
Rule 5: If there are two subjects, the first one is singular, and the second one is plural, the verb will be in plural form in case of ‘either… or’
Eg: Either Meera or her sisters have to cook.
Rule 6: When two singular subjects connected by ‘Neither…nor’ take a verb in the singular.
Eg: Neither you nor I attend the party.
Rule 7: If there are two subjects, the first one is singular, and the second one is plural, the verb will be in plural form in case of ‘neither… nor’
Eg: Neither Uma nor her friends are late.
Rule 8:  A collective noun takes a singular verb.
Eg: A packet of fruits was rotten.
Rule 9:  A collective noun takes a plural verb, when the individuals of whom it is composed are thought of separately instead of collectively.
Eg: The members have not yet decided.
Rule 10: Some nouns , which are plural in form but singular in meaning take a singular verb.
Eg: Scissors is used to cut.
Rule 11: Nouns, like a pair of shoes, a pair of gloves, etc are taken as singular and they take a singular verb.
Eg: A pair of slippers is still lying unused.
Rule 12:  If a plural noun denotes some specific quantity / amount, considered as a whole, it takes a singular verb.
Eg: Three hours is very difficult.

Infinitive
Subject that is not defined by number, place is called an infinitive. It is formed by adding ‘to’ to the verb.
General form: To + Root verb
Eg: to play.
Rules:
1. Remove the conjunction words ‘that’ or ‘so that’ or ‘if’.
2. Remove the subject after the conjunction.
3. Remove will, would, shall, should, can, could, may, might, must followed by subject and add ‘to’.
4. Remove the ‘be’ verbs (am, is, are, was, were) and add ‘to be’.
5. For the negative pattern, write not + to + Root verb.
6. If the pattern has/have/had/ought + to + verb then remove has/have/had/ought and write the remaining as such.
7. In ‘to’ while changing into infinitive, write to + Root verb.

Infinitives used as Subject complement
Eg: Bharat is confident that he will win the match.
Bharat is confident to win the match.
Infinitives used as Object complement
Eg: His father told him that he should join the army.
His father told him to join the army.

The clause that has the Interrogative conjunction can be changed into Infinitives as per the following rules.
Rules:
1. Generally question words need not be removed except ‘why’.
2. Remove the subject after the question word.
3. Subject should follow the verb.
Eg: I do not know how I can solve this problem.
I do not know how to solve this problem.

If the verb (either present or past) is followed by ‘When’ , remove when and write infinitive form. If ‘when’ is followed by shall/should/will/would/can/could, then write ‘when’ and infinite form.
Eg: We also felt happy when we heard of your promotion.
We also felt happy to hear of your promotion.
When the conjunction ‘Who’ is used removes ‘whom’ and writes the infinitive form.
Eg: I wonder who I can invite.
I wonder whom to invite.
If ‘which’ comes alone leave the conjunction ‘which’ and write the infinitive forms. Don’t remove for ‘Which box’, ‘Which book’.
Eg: She does not know which she ought to choose.
She does not know to choose.
If a preposition such as in, on with comes before the question word, remove the question word and write infinitive.
Eg: I have a young brother with whom I can play.
I have a young brother to play with.
If the verb + ing form in the sentence, it can be changed into infinitive as per the following rules.

Rules:
1. Change Verb + ing into to + verb.
2. If the prepositions such as in, on, at, for, etc… comes before verb + ing, remove those prepositions.
3. If the word ‘for the purpose of’ comes before verb + ing, remove that phrase.
Eg: Driving a car at night is not always easy.
To drive a car at night is not always easy.

Additional Rules
1. The infinitive is used without to after verbs like help, watch, bid, dare, hear, let, make, need and see.
2. If, however, the structure is do + dare or do + need, the infinitive is used with to.
3. The following verbs are followed by the infinitive:
Agree, arrange, attempt, care, cease, consent, decide, determine, endeavour, fall, forget, hesitate, hope, learn, manage, neglect, prepare, promise, propose, refuse, regret, remember, seem, swear, undertake.
4. Prepositions but and except take the infinitive without to.
5. Expressions would rather, would sooner, rather than, sooner than, had better are followed by infinitive without to.
Gerund
The –ing form of an English verb when used as a noun is called Gerund. It has the characteristic of a noun as well as a verb.
Root Verb + ing
Cases:
1. Subject to a verb – Eg: Cooking is an art.
2. Object to verb – Eg: You must stop smoking.
3. Object to a preposition – Eg: Children are fond of playing.
4. Complement to a verb – Eg: His only aim was cheating.
5. In opposition to a pronoun – Eg: It is no use of crying.

Rules
1.If the verb ends in ‘e’, remove ‘e’ and add ‘-ing’.
Eg: Give – Giving
2. If the last two letters are ‘e’ in the verb , just add ‘-ing’.
Eg: See – Seeing
3. If the verb ends in ‘ie’, remove ‘ie’  and write ‘y+ing’.
Eg: Die – Dying
4. If the last letter is a consonant by a short vowel; then double the consonant and add ‘-ing’.
Eg: Admit – Admitting
5.If the last letter is a consonant preceded by two vowels, just ass ‘-ing’.
Eg: Appear – Appearing
6.If the last letter is ‘w’, ‘x’, ‘y’, just add ‘-ing’.
Eg: Follow – Following
7. If the verb ends in ‘on’, ‘en’, ‘ur’, ‘er’, then add ‘-ing’.
Eg: Pardon – Pardoning
8. If the verb ends in ‘ger’, double the last letter and add ‘-ing’. Suppose it ends in ‘ffer’ just add ‘-ing’.
Eg: Prefer - Preferring
9. If any of the above rules does not suit, just add ‘-ing’.
Eg: Help – Helping
If to + verb is given in the sentence add ‘ing’.
Eg: Finding fault is very easy.
Seeing in the dark is very difficult.

The words preceded by to + verb such as afraid, opportunity, sure, hope, hopeful then write of + verb + ing. If the word ‘sorry’ appears, write for + verb + ing. If the word ‘keen’ comes, write on + verb + ing.
Eg: He is very keen on finishing the work.
I am sorry for waking you up.
Participle
(Partly a verb and partly an adjective)
It is the form of the verb, which partakes of the nature both of a verb and of an adjective.
Eg: Hearing the noise, the baby woke up.
Present Participle
It represents an action as going on or incomplete or imperfect. It ends with ‘-ing’.
Eg: driving
Past Participle
It represents a completed action or the state of the thing spoken of.
Eg: driven
Participle Adjectives
The participles that are used as simple qualifying adjectives in front of a noun, they are called Participle Adjectives.
Eg: A rolling stone gathers no moss.
Use of Participle

Continuous Tense (Active Voice)
It can be formed from present participle with tenses of the verb be
Eg: I am loving.

Perfect Tense (Active Voice)
They are formed from past participle with tenses of the verb have
Eg: I have loved.

Past Participle (Passive Voice)
It is formed from the past participle with tenses of the verb be
Eg: I am loved.

Participles qualify Nouns or Pronouns
1.Attributely
Eg: A rolling stone gathers no moss.
2. Predicative
Eg: The man seems worried.
3. Absolutely with a noun or pronoun going before
Eg: The weather being fine, I went out.

Dear Aspirants, Below we have given some exercise questions which may consist of errors (based on above notes), check whether the statement has error or not if any give your answers in the below comment section. 

Exercise Questions:
1. He did nothing but cursed his fate.
2. I intended to have punished him yesterday.
3. What is wanted are bats that can score more runs.
4. Leaves felled incessantly last autumn.
5. He would better play than studying without concentration.
6. Not a man was hurt, not a thing damaged.
7. The girl put a noose around her neck and hung herself in sheer desperation.
8. Considered the proposal, I accepted it.
9. The captain has been saddened, other team members refused to comment.
10. I doubt that he will not turn up.
11. He saw I laughing.
12. He never has and never will take action.
13. The hen lay eggs yesterday.
14. He is tired to play cricket.
15. The quality of the fruits were not satisfactory.
16. The prime minister decided to categorically deny the statement.
17. She hoped to have won the game yesterday.
18. The beauty of his clothes seem to outdo his personal elegance.
19. He never has and never will go for a picnic.
20. He does nothing but loitering in the corridor.

Explanation:
2). (to+ have+v3) is wrong usage. It is used when the action is carried out. Here it is not happening like that so simple infinite is used (to +v1). I intended to punish him.
3). ‘ what is wanted’ is invariably singular because ‘what is wanted’ gives the idea of one whole. So What is wanted is bats that can score runs.
4). Felled is also the past tense of fell. Felled means something cause to fall. Likewise fell is the causative of fall. No one causes the leaf to fall. So the correct verb is fall, here past tense is used so it takes fell. Leaves fell incessantly last autumn.
5). (would+v1) (better than). So He would play better than studying without concentration.
6). The sentence is correct.
7). V1- hang, v2-hanged, v3- hanged is the correct form to be used in this place. So , The girl put a noose around her neck and hanged herself in sheer desperation.
8). Considered the proposal is wrong usage. Considering the proposal is correct usage. So, considering the proposal, I accepted it.
9). Other team members has refused to comment is wrong usage. Other team members have refused to comment is the correct usage. So the captain has been saddened, other team members have refused to comment.
10). To doubt means to feel uncertain about. That un- itself is negative. So , why use not again? I doubt that he will turn up.
11). In object pace objective pronouns are used. So, He saw me laughing.
12). Conjunctions like and/or/but  is placed between equal caders like noun-noun, phrase-phrase,… In this supporting verb + main verb is used. So both the side must be in equal. So , He has never taken and never will take action is the correct usage.
13). The past tense for lay is laid. So The hen laid eggs.
14). When you get bored or fed up with a thing, the correct expression is tired of. So, He is tired of playing cricket.
15). The word QUALITY is singular. You don’t need to take the latter word fruits into consideration. So, The quality of fruits was not satisfactory.
16). The infinity used here suits is deny. (to+ deny) considerably comes at the end of the statement. So, The prime minister decided to deny the statement categorically.
17). The perfect infinity should be changed to the simple infinity. So, She hoped to win the game yesterday.
18). Like Q-15, the word BEAUTY is singular and don’t need to take the word clothes into consideration. The beauty of his clothes seems to outdo his personal elegance.
19). See Q-12 same rule. So, He never has gone and never will go for a picnic.

20). Parents – father and mother. Parent – only one of the two. So, Are your parents coming for the festival?


         


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