Important English Vocabulary from “The Hindu Editorial”-(Day-45):
Dear Readers, to score good marks in English Section first and for most thing is you need to develop your reading skills, while reading a passage you need to highlight the tough words in it and you should know the correct meaning for those words. This will help you understand the passage clearly and also you can learn more new words, it means also you can develop your vocabulary. To help you in this part we have provided a English Vocabulary passage along with meaning, synonyms and usages of hard words in the passage, make use of it. We also providing Important Vocabulary Quiz based on “THE ECONOMIST” and “THE HINDU”
TRAI recommendations for Net neutrality must be urgently acted upon
The struggle to keep the Internet freely accessible to all got a welcome shot in the arm on Tuesday. The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) finally came out with clear guidelines in favour of Net neutrality that are consistent with its earlier stand on Facebook’s Free Basics proposal. After consultation papers issued in May 2016 and this January, the regulator reiterated that there cannot be discriminatory treatment of websites on the Internet by service providers. In particular, TRAI warned providers against the practice of blocking certain websites and tinkering with content speeds. This, in a nutshell, means that service providers such as telecom companies cannot stand in the way of a consumer’s access to content that would otherwise be provided to her without any undue hindrance. They cannot, for instance, charge consumers for access to certain content, or receive payment from websites promising greater promotion of their product over the rest. Quite notably, TRAI’s decision comes in the wake of international focus on the U.S. Federal Communications Commission’s decision to scrap regulations on service providers imposed during the Obama administration. While batting for the right to an open Internet, however, TRAI has been careful to allow some exceptions that allow companies to discriminate between content if it helps them regulate the flow of traffic or offer “specialised services”.
While TRAI’s new guidelines will help the cause of building the Internet as a public platform with open access to all, the concerns of service providers should not be dismissed altogether. The Internet has spread all over the world, so widely that many believe it is now an essential good. But the infrastructure that serves as the backbone of the Internet has not come without huge investments by private service providers. So any regulation that severely restricts the ability of companies to earn sufficient returns on investment will only come at the cost of the welfare of the public. In this connection, TRAI has been open to adopting a nuanced view that differentiates between various forms of content instead of imposing a blanket ban on all forms of price differentiation. The new policy, for instance, will still allow companies to justify the costs incurred in providing niche content to consumers. At the same time, TRAI’s measured response is likely to effectively address the problem of anticompetitive practices adopted by certain providers. Interestingly, it has left it, with important caveats, to the government to decide on services that count as “specialised” and deserve exceptional treatment by regulators. To this end, a proper mechanism needs to be instituted to make sure that the exceptions are not used as loopholes by the big Internet players. Policymakers will also need to think hard about creating an appropriate legal framework to prevent the capture of regulation by special interests.
A standalone law to prevent custodial cruelty is in India’s interests
Enacting a law prohibiting torture is both a moral imperative and a pragmatic necessity. The Union government has informed the Supreme Court that it is seriously considering the 273rd Report of the Law Commission, which has recommended that India ratify the United Nations Convention against Torture and pass a law to prevent torture and punish its perpetrators. A few months ago, the court had sought the Centre’s response to a petition led in public interest by former Union Law Minister Ashwani Kumar, who complained about the delay in India ratifying the UN Convention, which it had signed in 1997. The petition had also favoured a standalone legislation to prohibit torture. The court disposed of the matter without any direction after being informed that the matter was under serious consideration. The Centre should now act on its own with a sense of urgency. There can be no reason to further delay legislative measures to eliminate all forms of torture and other cruel, inhuman and degrading forms of treatment. At an earlier hearing, the court had itself highlighted why a standalone law is needed. India has made many requests for extradition of offenders from other countries, and the absence of an anti-torture law may prevent these countries from acceding to India’s requests. Earlier this month, extradition courts in the United Kingdom refused to send two persons to India to face trial, one of them on the ground that there was “no effective system of protection from torture in
the receiving state”. Conditions in India’s prisons, especially the chronic problem of overcrowding, are a reason for the country’s extradition requests failing. Few would disagree that ratifying the UN Convention and following it up with a domestic law against torture will not only be in the national interest but also have positive implications for the protection of human rights. Custodial violence continues to be prevalent in the country. The recent example of a bus conductor being forced to confess to murdering a schoolchild is a pointer to the use of torture as an investigative tool among policemen. The Prevention of Torture Bill was passed by the Lok Sabha in 2010 to address the problem, but it lapsed after it was referred to a Select Committee in the Rajya Sabha. The Law Commission, to which the question was referred in July this year, produced a report within three months. It also submitted a draft Bill for the government’s consideration. The government should accept the recommendations without delay as it not only provides a penal framework for punishing public servants who inflict torture, but also lays down that just compensation be paid to victims.
- Discriminatory (Adj)
Definition: making or showing an unfair
Synonym: biased, inequitable, prejudiced, unfair
Usage: discriminatory employment practices
- Tinkering (Verb)
Definition: attempt to repair or improve something in a casual or desultory way.
Synonym: dabble, mess, doodle
Usage: he spent hours tinkering with the car
- Nutshell (Idiom)
Definition: in very brief form
Synonym: abbreviate, abstract
Usage: Just tell me the story in a nutshell.
- Hindrance (Noun)
Definition: immediate action was imperative
Synonym: interference, interruption
Usage: a hindrance to the development process.
- Imposed (Verb)
Definition: force on someone.
Synonym: appoint, charge, demand, enforce
Usage: He imposed his pretentious books on the public.
- Nuanced (Adj)
Definition: characterized by subtle shades of meaning or expression.
Synonym: distinction, gradation
Usage: His work has gradually grown more nuanced.
- Niche (Adj)
Definition: denoting or relating to products
Synonym: position, recess
Usage: other companies in this space had to adapt to being niche players.
- Caveats (Noun)
Definition: a warning or proviso of specific stipulations
Synonym: admonition, alarm, caution
Usage: a caveat filed against the probate of a will.
- Enacting (Verb)
Definition: put into practice
Synonym: execute, approve, pass
Usage: the pressure group’s aim was to see the proposals enacted.
- Pragmatic (Adj)
Definition: dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical.
Synonym: realistic, practical
Usage: a pragmatic approach to politics.
- Perpetrators (Noun)
Definition: a person who carries out a harmful, illegal, or immoral act.
Synonym: assassin, criminal
Usage: the perpetrators of this horrific crime must be brought to justice.
- Imperative (Adj)
Definition: of vital importance; crucial.
Synonym: necessary, indispensable
Usage: immediate action was imperative
- Implications (Noun)
Definition: the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.
Synonym: Suggestion, inference, hint, imputation
Usage: The implication is that no one person at the bank is responsible
- Offenders (Noun)
Definition: a person who commits an illegal act.
Synonym: Wrongdoer, criminal, felon, culprit
Usage: An institution for young offenders
- Inflict (Verb)
Definition: cause (something unpleasant or painful) to be suffered by someone or something
Synonym: administer to, deal out to, mete out to, serve out to, deliver to, and apply to
Usage: They inflicted serious injuries on three other men
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