“20-20” English Question | Crack Dena Bank 2018 Day-106

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack Dena Bank 2018 (Day-106)

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Direction (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

The decline in the growth rate is not a recent phenomenon. It started in 2011-12. The persistence of relatively low growth over a five-year period calls for a critical examination. Ultimately, the growth rate is determined by two factors the investment rate and the efficiency in the use of capital. As the Harrod-Domar equation puts it, the growth rate is equal to the investment rate divided by the incremental capital-output ratio. The incremental capital-output ratio is the amount of capital required to produce one unit of output. The higher the ICOR, the less efficient we are in the use of capital. There are many caveats to this bald proposition. As we look at the Indian performance in the last five years, two facts stand out. One is a decline in the investment rate and the second is a rise in ICOR; both of which can only lead to a lower growth rate. ICOR is a catch-all expression which is determined by a variety of factors including technology, skill of manpower, managerial competence and also macroeconomic policies. Thus delays in the completion of projects, lack of complementary investments in related sectors and the non-availability of critical inputs can all lead to a rise in ICOR. The Economic Survey of 2014-15 reported that there were in all 746 stalled projects, with 161 in the public sector and 585 in the private sector of a total value of ₹8.8 lakh crore. India’s investment rate reached a peak in 2007-08 at 38.0% of GDP. With an ICOR of 4, it was not surprising that a high growth rate of close to 9.4% was achieved. The decline in the rate was small initially but has been more pronounced in the last two years. According to the latest estimates, the gross fixed capital formation rate fell to as low as 26.9% in 2016-17. With this investment rate, it is simply impossible to achieve a growth rate in the range of 8 to 9%.

In 2011 and 2012, in discussions on the Indian economy, the one phrase that used to be bandied about was policy paralysis pointing to the inability of the government to take policy decisions because of coalition compulsions. It is true that around this period, the government was preoccupied with answering many issues connected with graft. But that does not explain the steady fall in the investment rate except for a sense of uncertainty created in the minds of investors. The growth rate of the advanced economies remained low and the recovery from the crisis of 2008 was tepid which had an adverse impact on exports. However, India benefited by large capital inflows except in 2013. For almost three years beginning 2010, India had to cope with a high level of inflation which also had an adverse impact on investment sentiment. Once the growth rate starts to decline, it sets in motion a vicious cycle of decline in investment and lower growth. We need to break this chain in order to move on to a higher growth path. The standard prescription, whenever private investment is weak, is to raise public investment which can take a longer term view. This standard suggestion is very much appropriate in the present context as well. In the best of times, public investment has been 8% of GDP. The Central government’s capital expenditures even after some increase in the last two years, is only 1.8% of GDP. About 3 to 4% of GDP comes from public sector undertakings and the balance from State governments. During the high growth phase, corporate investment reached the level of 14% of GDP. Since then it has fallen. In fact, a recent study shows that the total cost of projects initiated by the corporate sector has come down from ₹5,560 billion in 2009-10 to ₹954 billion in 2015-16.

Three things need attention. First, reforms to simplify procedures, speed up the delivery system and enlarge competition must be pursued vigorously. Some significant steps have been taken in this regard in recent years such as moving forward on the GST Bill, passing of the Bankruptcy Act, and enlarging the scope of foreign direct investment. Second, all viable stalled projects must be brought to completion. Third, financial bottlenecks need to be cleared. The banking system is under stress. The non-performing loans of the system have risen and are rising. This has squeezed the profitability of banks with some showing loss. More distressing is the minimal flow of new credit. The problem is often referred to as the twin balance sheet problem. If corporate balance sheets are weak, automatically the banks’ balance sheets also become weak. Really speaking, it is two sides of the same coin. The solution to clean up the balance sheet of banks lies in taking some haircuts. At least some part of the accumulation of bad debts has been due to the slowdown of the economy. The old saying is bad loans are sown in good times.

1) According to the passage which of the following given situations lead to lower growth rate?

  1. Decline in the investment rate
  2. Low gross fixed capital formation
  3. Rise in incremental capital-output ratio

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) Only iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

2) According to the passage what are the solutions required to enhance investment in order to move on to a higher growth path? 

  1. All workable stalled projects must be brought to completion.
  2. The Financial constriction need to be cleared.
  3. Substantial capital inflows

a) i and iii

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) All of the above

e) None of these

3) Which of the following given statements have been mentioned correct about incremental capital-output ratio?

  1. The incremental capital-output ratio is the amount of capital required to produce one unit of output.
  2. Delays in the completion of projects and the non-availability of critical inputs can all lead to a rise in incremental capital-output ratio.
  3. The higher the incremental capital-output ratio, the high efficient we are in the use of capital.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) Only i

e) All are correct

4) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. The non-performing loans of the system have risen, this has compressed the profitability of banks with some showing loss
  2. About 2 to 4% of GDP comes from public sector undertakings and the balance from State governments.
  3. From beginning of 2010, India had to cope with a low level of inflation which also had an adverse impact on investment sentiment

a) Only ii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

5) According to the passage which of the following is not one of the factor used to determine the incremental capital-output ratio?

a) Macroeconomic policies

b) Technology

c) Skill of manpower

d) Managerial competence

e) Foreign direct investment

6) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. The Economic Survey of 2014-15 reported that there were in all 746 stalled projects of a total value of ₹8.8 lakh crore.
  2. The Central government’s capital expenditures even after some increase in the last three years, is only 1.8% of GDP
  3. The total cost of projects initiated by the corporate sector has come down from ₹5,560 billion in 2009-10 to ₹954 billion in 2015-16.

a) i and iii

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) Only i

e) None of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “accumulation” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Dissipation

b) Sagging

c) Accretion

d) Ebbing

e) Waning

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “tepid” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Fanatical

b) Ebullient

c) Ardent

d) Languid

e) Fervid

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “vigorously” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Earnestly

b) Stoutly

c) Strenuously

d) Robustly

e) Sluggishly

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “caveats” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Admonition

b) Espousal

c) Combination

d) Proviso

e) Forewarning

 

Direction (11-15): In each of the following sentences there is one blank space. Below each sentence there are four words denoted by a), b), c) d) and e). Find one word that to be fitted in both the sentences I and II and another word that to fit in sentence III and to make it meaning fully complete.

11)

  1. While Matt was quick to _________ his loyalty for his country, he refused to sign up for military service
  2. Even though the men ______ to be police officers, they are not law enforcement agents so do not allow them in your home.
  3. Despite his great commercial success he still _______ for critical approval.

a) Acknowledged, crave

b) Avowed, hankers

c) Profess, yearns

d) Purport, covet

e) Affirm, forswear

12)

  1. By ________ the most severe penalty we may be giving up what is to some people a deterrent.
  2. One might conclude that this partial restoration is a reward for _______ idolatry and loving responsibly.
  3. The problem is that there is a ________ lack of local authority secure accommodation

a) Abjuring, woeful

b) Reneged, feeble

c) Renounced, dreadful

d) Abnegating, succored

e) Disclaiming, sterling

13)

  1. Religious minorities were __________ and massacred during the ten-year regime.
  2. Ever since the news broke about her divorce, she has been ________ by the tabloid press.
  3. Crowds marched through the streets carrying burning ________ of the president.

a) Badger, portraits

b) Outraged, statue

c) Persecuted, effigies

d) Aggrieve, carvings

e) Tyrannized, personages

14)

  1. The plan to ________ large numbers of baby seals has angered environmental groups.
  2. To save remaining herds and habitat, the national parks department is planning to _______ 2000 elephants
  3. The alleged ________ was caught on a nearby beach and arrested.

a) Gleaned, aggressor

b) Slaughter, muggers

c) Insinuate, antagonist

d) Decimate, foes

e) Cull, assailant

15)

  1. We especially wish to thank the referee who pointed out many errors and _________ in the first two submissions.
  2. The stories are convoluted and opaque, often to the point of total _______.
  3.  The food rivaled the best restaurants of the day and the service was ________.

a) Vagueness, blemished

b) Obscurities, impeccable

c) Ambiguity, immaculate

d) Dogmatisms, exquisite

e) Fuzziness, untarnished

 

Direction (16-20): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a), b), c), d). Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences.

16) Boil away

  1. Things got out of hand and the crowd’s passions boiled away.
  2. She left the kettle on and boiled the water away.
  3. Boil the alcohol away or the sauce will be ruined.
  4. I turned up the heat too high and the soup boiled away.

a) ii and iii

b) i and iv

c) i and ii

d) iii and iv

e) All are correct

17) Come across

  1. He comes across as a bit of a bore in interview.
  2. Diya came across a book he had been looking for.
  3. When editorial review commences, that’s where you come across.
  4. We came across a few small mistakes in the students’ work

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iv

d) All except iii

e) All are correct

18) Do up

  1. She did up the birthday presents in beautiful bows and ribbons.
  2. I have to do the kitchen up before the guests get here.
  3.  I did up the present in silver wrapping paper and a big bow.
  4. He did his trousers up and left the changing room.

a) iii and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) All except iv

e) All are correct

19) Throw on

  1. The campers threw some wood on the bonfire.
  2. He threw the car on gear and sped away from the scene
  3. The prisoners threw themselves on the mercy of the court.
  4. The warden opened the cell door and threw on the prisoner

a) ii and iv

b) i and iii

c) iii and iv

d) i and ii

e) All are correct

20) Get by

  1. The store was so crowded that it was hard to get by the entranceway.
  2. Please get by the sugar from the top shelf.
  3. After they ate, the guests got by and boogied.
  4. The mistake got by the editor, but the proofreader caught it.

a) iii and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and iv

d) i and ii

e) All are correct

Answers:

1) Correct Answer is: d)

It is mentioned in para 1-One is a decline in the investment rate and the second is a rise in ICOR; both of which can only lead to a lower growth rate.

2) Correct Answer is: c)

It is mentioned in para 3-Second, all viable stalled projects must be brought to completion. Third, financial bottlenecks need to be cleared.

3) Correct Answer is: b)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1-The incremental capital-output ratio is the amount of capital required to produce one unit of output. The higher the ICOR, the less efficient we are in the use of capital. Thus delays in the completion of projects, lack of complementary investments in related sectors and the non-availability of critical inputs can all lead to a rise in ICOR.

4) Correct Answer is: c)

It is clearly mentioned in para 2&3-The non-performing loans of the system have risen and are rising. This has squeezed the profitability of banks with some showing loss. About 3 to 4% of GDP comes from public sector undertakings and the balance from State governments. For almost three years beginning 2010, India had to cope with a high level of inflation which also had an adverse impact on investment sentiment

5) Correct Answer is: e)

It is mentioned in para 1-ICOR is a catch-all expression which is determined by a variety of factors including technology, skill of manpower, managerial competence and also macroeconomic policies.

6) Correct Answer is: a)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1&2-The Economic Survey of 2014-15 reported that there were in all 746 stalled projects, with 161 in the public sector and 585 in the private sector of a total value of ₹8.8 lakh crore. The Central government’s capital expenditures even after some increase in the last two years, is only 1.8% of GDP. In fact, a recent study shows that the total cost of projects initiated by the corporate sector has come down from ₹5,560 billion in 2009-10 to ₹954 billion in 2015-16.

7) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of word accumulation is the acquisition or gradual gathering of something.

8) Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of word tepid is showing little enthusiasm or unconcerned

9) Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of word vigorously is with enthusiasm or with great effort

10) Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of word caveats is a warning of specific stipulations, conditions, or limitations.

Direction (11-15):

11) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “profess” is to claim often falsely that one has a quality or feeling and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “yearns” is to desire strongly for something so it is appropriate for iii blank.

12) Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “abjuring” is to reject a belief, cause or claim and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “woeful” is very bad or terrible so it is appropriate for iii blank.

13) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “persecuted” is to harass or subject to ill-treatment, especially because of their race or religious beliefs and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “effigies” is a sculpture or model of a person so it is appropriate for iii blank.

14) Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “cull” is to reduce the population of a wild animal by selective killing or thinning out and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “assailant” is a person who physically attacks another so it is appropriate for iii blank.

15) Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “obscurities” is a thing that is unclear or difficult to understand and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “impeccable” is faultless or upright so it is appropriate for iii blank.

Direction (16-20)

16) Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “boil away” is to remove a chemical from a solution or to boil a liquid until it is gone altogether meaning and the phrase has been applied properly in ii and iii sentences.

17) Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “came across” is to encounter something or to discover someone or something and the phrase has been applied properly in i, ii and iv sentences

18) Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “do up” is to fasten completely some item or part of clothing or to arrange or fix something and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences

19) Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “throw on” is to commit someone to something especially for support or to hurl or fling someone and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences

20) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “get by” is to find a way past or around something or to go unnoticed and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iv sentences

Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck

Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
General Awareness “20-20” 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM

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