“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 Day-129

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 (Day-129)

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Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

Indian’s water crisis is clear and present with implications for the health of the entire population. According to the Composite Water Management Index developed by NitiAayog, 70% of the water resources are identified as polluted. This is based primarily on data supplied by States for calculating the index. If the water accessible to millions is contaminated, the problem is infinitely worse than that of availability. The system of ratings for States is based on their performance in augmenting water resources and watersheds, investing in infrastructure, providing rural and urban drinking water, and encouraging efficient agricultural use. Tamil Nadu, which has a middling score, does well on augmentation of water sources, but is abysmally poor in ensuring sustainable use for farming. Two areas that need urgent measures are augmentation of watersheds that can store more good water, for use in agriculture and to serve habitations, and strict pollution control enforcement. In this context, the Committee on Restructuring the Central Water Commission and the Central Ground Water Board, chaired by Mihir Shah, has called for a user-centric approach to water management, especially in agriculture. It advocates decentralisation of irrigation commands, offering higher financial flows to well-performing States through a National Irrigation Management Fund. Steady urbanisation calls for a new management paradigm, augmenting sources of clean drinking water supply and treatment technologies that will encourage reuse. Pollution can be curbed by levying suitable costs. A legal mandate will work better than just competition and cooperation; it would make governments accountable. The water-related challenges we face today are immense. An estimated 3.6 billion people now live in areas that could face water scarcity for at least a month in a year, with that number increasing to 4.8 and 5.7 billion by 2050. The International Water Management Institute estimates that total demand could increase from 680 billion cubic metres to 833 BCM by 2025, and to 900 BCM by 2050.By 2050, countries already facing water scarcity challenges may also be forced to cope with the decreased availability of surface water resources.

Along with water scarcity, there is the issue of water quality. Since the 1990s, water pollution has worsened in most rivers in Africa, Asia and Latin America, according to the UN Environment Programme. An estimated 80% of industrial and municipal wastewater is released without any prior treatment, with detrimental impacts on human health and ecosystems. Given the transboundary nature of most river basins, regional cooperation will be critical to addressing projected water quality challenges. A Central Pollution Control Board report indicates that almost half of India’s inter-State rivers are polluted. Sewage from 650 cities and towns along 302 polluted river stretches in the country increased from 38,000 million litres per day in 2009 to 62,000 MLD in 2015. It found that the untreated sewage and industrial waste was a major cause of pollution in 16 of 40 inter-State rivers in the country. Nature-based solutions can address overall water scarcity through supply-side management and are recognised as the main solution to achieving sustainable water for agriculture. Environmentally-friendly agricultural systems like those which use practices such as conservation tillage, crop diversification, legume intensification and biological pest control work as well as intensive, high-input systems. The environmental co-benefits of nature-based solutions to increasing sustainable agricultural production are substantial as there are decreased pressures on land conversion and reduced pollution, erosion and water requirements. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment can also be a cost-effective, nature-based solution that provides effluent of adequate quality for several non-potable uses and additional benefits that include energy production. Watershed management is another nature-based solution that is seen not only as a complement to grey infrastructure but also one that could also spur local economic development, job creation, biodiversity protection and climate resilience.

A growing population, lack of adequate planning, indiscriminate drilling of borewells, large-scale consumption of water, and a false sense of entitlement in using water carelessly are causing water shortages. Unless drastic measures are taken to minimise water usage, the day may not be far off when authorities will be forced to ration water supply in cities like Bengaluru, which has been ranked second in the list of 11 global cities which might face the imminent threat of running out of drinking water. The World Bank’s Water Scarce Cities Initiative seeks to promote an integrated approach to managing water resources and service delivery in water-scarce cities as the basis for building resilience against climate change. The demand for water in urban areas is projected to increase by 50-70% in the next three decades. According to a forecast by the Asian Development Bank, India will have a water deficit of 50% by 2030. India’s water needs are basically met by rivers and groundwater. Water scarcity can lead to disastrous consequences impacting food production as most of the farming is rain-fed. With ground water catering to about 60% of the country’s irrigation, 85% of rural water drinking requirements, and 50% of urban water needs, replenishing the aquifers has to be accorded top priority. Less than 3% of Earth’s water is freshwater and most of it is not accessible. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, over 68% of the freshwater on Earth is found in icecaps and glaciers, while just over 30% is found in groundwater. According to the United Nations, 2.1 billion people lack access to safely managed drinking water services; water scarcity already affects four out of every 10 people; 90% of all natural disasters are water related; 3.4 lakh children under five die every year from diarrhoeal diseases; agriculture accounts for 70% of global water withdrawal; and 80% of wastewater flows back into the ecosystem without being treated or reused. In 2010, the UN General Assembly recognised the right of every human being to have access to sufficient water for personal and domestic uses. According to the annual report of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, about 77% of rural habitations in India have achieved a fully covered status under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme, and 55% of the rural population have access to tap water. Another important issue that needs to be addressed, particularly in urban areas, is the leakage of pipes providing water. We cannot allow this to continue any longer.

1) According to the passage which of the following has been mentioned correct as per the data on water quality by United Nations?

  1. About 2.1 billion people lack access to safely managed drinking water services
  2. Every year 2.4 lakh children under five die from diarrhoeal diseases
  3. About 80% of wastewater flows back into the ecosystem without being reused.

a) i and ii

b) Only iii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

2) According to the passage which of the following urgent measures needed to be taken to improve water sources in the country?

  1. To spur biodiversity protection and climate resilience.
  2. To upgrade watersheds that can store more good water
  3.  Strict pollution control enforcement.

a) Only ii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

3) According to the passage which of the following statements has been mentioned correct regarding the forecast by the Asian Development Bank?

  1. India will have a water deficit of 50 percent by 2030.
  2. The untreated sewage and industrial waste is a major cause of pollution in inter-State rivers in the country
  3. About 3.6 billion people now live in areas that could face water scarcity for at least a month.

a) ii and iii

b) Only i

c) i and ii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

4) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. As per the estimation done, about 70% of industrial and municipal wastewater is released without any prior treatment.
  2. As per the Composite Water Management Index, 60 percent of the water resources are identified as polluted
  3. The International Water Management Institute estimates that by 2025, total water demand could increase from 680 to 833 BCM

a) i and ii

b) Only ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

5) According to the passage which of the following statements have been mentioned correct as per the annual report of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation?

  1. About 77% of rural habitations have attained a completely covered status under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme
  2. Over 68% of the freshwater on Earth is found in icecaps and glaciers and just over 30% is found in groundwater
  3. About 55% of the rural population have access to tap water.

a) i and iii

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) All except iii

e) None of these

6) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. The Water Scarce Cities Initiative of World Bank attempts to encourage service delivery in water-scarce cities as the basis for building resilience against climate change.
  2. Applying nature-based solutions to increase agricultural production are considerable as there are decreased pressures on land conversion and reduced pollution, erosion and water requirements
  3. The UN General Assembly recognised the right to have access to sufficient water for personal and domestic uses in the year 2010

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) Only i & ii

e) All of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word accorded in bold as used in the passage.

a) Asseverate

b) Endowed

c) Spurned

d) Reprobate

e) Chastise

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word middling printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Fairish

b) Prodigious

c) Paramount

d) Dandy

e) Unrivalled

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word imminent printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Expectant

b) Looming

c) Ineluctable

d) Avertible

e) Brewing

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word replenishing printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Provision

b) Accouter

c) Evacuate

d) Purvey

e) Furnish

Directions (11-15): Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Below the sentence are five sets of words. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

11) The government has _______ the Employee Adjustment Act, 2017, that allows existing public service employees of the central government to be ________ to local and provincial governments.  

a) Effectuated, accredit

b) Enacted, assigned

c) Begrudged, imputed

d) Decreed, retracted

e) Ratified, ascribe

12) Storms are caused by _________ dry spells and westerly winds blowing at high speeds, the he haze they _____ up is different from the winter pollution when lack of wind and low temperatures trap pollution inside the city.

a) Protracted, incited

b) Lingered, tranquilize

c) Prorogued, compelled

d) Expedited, foment

e) Prolonged, whip

13) The delay in completing the settlement process is as much due to too many false claims as it is to concerted efforts by the revenue administrations against _______ forest land ______ for development projects.

a) Constrained, reserved

b) Trammeling, apportion

c) Encumbering, earmarked

d) Saddled, budgeted

e) Exonerating, accorded

14) The conservationist and the rights activist may still get real and ______their mutual mistrust for good but the future of conservation and grass roots empowerment may lie in community _______ forests.

a) Dispel, managed

b) Crumble, govern

c) Acquiescence, administered

d) Eject, preside

e) Sanctify, headed

15) Data shows that it is the poorer states that have led the surge in social sector spending. Most poor states have seen a visible increase, suggesting these states are actively ________to reduce the ______ of poverty.

a) Arbitrating, straining

b) Interceding, repose

c) Intervening, brunt

d) Middling, tranquility

e) Agonizing, impact

Directions (16-20): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a), b), c), d) Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences

16) Keep back

  1. John was kept back a year in school.
  2. Keep back the job if you want to get it finished.
  3. Passengers are requested to keep back behind the yellow line.
  4. Please keep Walter back his chores.

a) ii and iv

b) i and ii

c) iii and iv

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

17) Lay out

  1. She laid me out for breaking the vase.
  2. Rocky laid out cocktails for fifty at the last minute.
  3. Alia laid out the seating of the guests.
  4. Maria laid out her opponent with a left hook.

a) ii and iii

b) i and iv

c) iii and iv

d) All except ii

e) All are correct

18) Shell out

  1. They were worried about having to shell out for training additional staff.
  2. I had to shell out $500 on car repairs.
  3. If we lose the case, we’ll be forced to shell out.
  4. Courts have ordered tobacco companies to shell out millions of dollars in damages to smokers.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) ii and iii

d) i and iv

e) All are correct

19) Crack on

  1. Now we’ve prepared the walls we can crack on with the painting
  2. Crack on with that report, Tom, we need it by this afternoon
  3.  The government has crack on protesters.
  4. There’s finally been a crack on plagiarism at the school.

a) iii and iv

b) i and ii

c) ii and iv

d) All except iii

e) All are correct

20) Run up

  1. The crew ran up the preflight procedures.
  2. Everyone is very busy during the run-up to publication.
  3. Stock buybacks trigger a run up in price when common stock holders want cash.
  4. Let’s run up the first act again.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) ii and iii

d) i and iv

e) All are correct

Answers:

1). Correct Answer is: d)

It is mentioned in the para 3- According to the United Nations, 2.1 billion people lack access to safely managed drinking water services; water scarcity already affects four out of every 10 people, 3.4 lakh children under five die every year from diarrhoeal diseases; agriculture accounts for 70% of global water withdrawal; and 80% of wastewater flows back into the ecosystem without being treated or reused.

2). Correct Answer is: c)

It is mentioned in the para 1- Two areas that need urgent measures are augmentation of watersheds that can store more good water, for use in agriculture and to serve habitations, and strict pollution control enforcement.

3). Correct Answer is: b)

It is clearly mentioned in the para 3- According to a forecast by the Asian Development Bank, India will have a water deficit of 50% by 2030.

4). Correct Answer is: a)

It is clearly mentioned in the para 1&2- The International Water Management Institute estimates that total demand could increase from 680 billion cubic metres to 833 BCM by 2025, and to 900 BCM by 2050. According to the Composite Water Management Index developed by NitiAayog, 70% of the water resources are identified as polluted. An estimated 80% of industrial and municipal wastewater is released without any prior treatment, with detrimental impacts on human health and ecosystems

5). Correct Answer is: a)

It is clearly mentioned in the para 3- According to the annual report of the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, about 77% of rural habitations in India have achieved a fully covered status under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme, and 55% of the rural population have access to tap water.

6). Correct Answer is: e)

It is mentioned in the para 3-The World Bank’s Water Scarce Cities Initiative seeks to promote an integrated approach to managing water resources and service delivery in water-scarce cities as the basis for building resilience against climate change, In 2010 the UN General Assembly recognised the right of every human being to have access to sufficient water for personal and domestic uses. The environmental co-benefits of nature-based solutions to increasing sustainable agricultural production are substantial as there are decreased pressures on land conversion and reduced pollution, erosion and water requirements

7). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of accorded is to present or grant something

8). Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of middling is moderate or average in amount or rank.

9). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of imminent is about to happen or fast approaching

10). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of replenishing is to restore or fill something up again.

Direction (11-15)

11). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “enacted” is “to put into practice” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “assigned” is “to allocate a job or duty” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12). Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “prolonged” is “to put into practice” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “whip” is “to allocate a job or duty” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

13). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “encumbering” is “to obstruct or hinder” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “earmarked” is “to designate funds or resources for a particular purpose” so it is appropriate for ii blank

14). Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “dispel” is “to make a doubt or belief disappear” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “managed” is “to handle” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

15). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “intervening” is “to take part in something so as to prevent a result” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “brunt” is “consequences” so it is appropriate for ii blank

Direction (16-20)

16). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “keep back” is to restrain people from moving forward or to remain out of the way and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences

17). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “lay out” is to arrange or to knock to the ground/ to rebuke and the phrase has been applied properly in i, iii and iv sentences

18). Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “shell out” is to pay money for something, especially when the cost is unexpected and not wanted and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences

19). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “crack on” is to do or especially continue doing something determinedly and the phrase has been applied properly in i and ii sentences

20). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “run up” is a sudden increase in price or the period before an important event and the phrase has been applied properly in ii and iii sentences

Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck

Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
General Awareness “20-20” 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM

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