“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI Clerk / IDBI Executive 2018 Day-67

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 (Day-67)

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Directions (1-10):  Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it

Government policy documents are statements of goals, priorities and strategies. If old strategies have failed or circumstances have changed, they should be revised. Given that our Forest Policy was last revised in 1988, changes are perhaps overdue. The new draft Forest Policy 2018, however, ignores the lessons from this period and returns to the state-managed forestry of the 1950s, but with a neoliberal twist. India’s diverse forests support the livelihoods of 250 million people, providing them firewood, fodder, bamboo, beedi leaves and many other products. The timber currently benefits the state treasury. Forests also regulate stream flows and sediment, benefitting downstream communities. Finally, they provide global benefits of biodiversity and carbon sequestration. However, these multiple goods and services, flowing to different beneficiaries, cannot be simultaneously maximised. Forest policy, therefore, focuses primarily on which benefits to prioritise, where and through what process. Another focus area is to decide when and through what process to allow diversion of forest land for “non-forest” activities such as dam building, mining and agriculture. Forest policy in colonial India focused on maximising products and revenues for the state through the imperial forest department as sole owner, protector and manager of the forest estate. Unfortunately, post-Independence policy continued this statist approach. Forests were seen as sources of raw material for industry and local communities were simply treated as labour. nIn a paradigm shift, the 1988 Forest Policy recognised the multiple roles of forests and prioritised environmental stability over revenue maximisation. It also acknowledged that the needs of forest-dependent communities must be the “first charge” on forest produce. Equally important, the policy emphasized people’s involvement in protecting and regenerating forests, thus formally recognising the limitations of state-managed forestry.

Joint forest management (JFM) was initiated in the 1990s to implement the concept of people’s involvement. But what began with great expectations eventually ended up as a nation-wide charade. Foresters created thousands of village forest committees but severely limited their autonomy and jurisdictions. Donor money was spent on plantations but activities were stopped once funds ran out. “People’s participation” by executive order was too weak and lopsided a concept. Instead what was required was substantive devolution of control over forests. The Forest Rights Act (FRA) of 2006 created a historic opportunity for such devolution. Its community forest resource provisions gave communities rights to both access and manage forests. Today, thousands of villages in Maharashtra and Odisha have received these rights, and hundreds have begun to exercise them. The 1990s also saw the Supreme Court getting involved in forest governance. To regulate forest diversions, it introduced a high ‘net present value’ (NPV) charge on the lands diverted. But the court refused to assign any role to local communities affected by such diversion, not even a share in the NPV received. Again, the FRA democratised the diversion process by requiring community concurrence for forest diversion once community forest rights are recognised. The Adivasis of Niyamgiri in Odisha exercised this provision to prevent bauxite mining in their sacred hill tracts. Carping about the decline in forest productivity, it identifies “production forestry” and plantations as the “new thrust area”. Forest development corporations, white elephants of the statist era, are to be the institutional vehicle. But in a neoliberal twist, they will now enter into public-private partnerships (PPPs) to bring corporate investment into forest lands.

In the past, production forestry led to replacing natural oak forests with pine monocultures in the Himalayas, natural sal forests with teak plantations in central India, and wet evergreen forests with eucalyptus and acacia in the Western Ghats. All this has decimated diversity, dried up streams and undermined local livelihoods. PPPs will entail more such destruction, with even the profits ending up in corporate hands. If local communities had a say in forest governance, they would challenge this production forestry model. So there is little about decentralised governance in the draft policy though the term “community participation” is tossed around liberally. The draft talks of “ensuring synergy” between gram sabhas and JFM committees, when the need is to replace JFM committees with statutorily empowered gram sabhas, and revamp the colonial-era Indian Forest Act by incorporating FRA provisions. So, what is the impetus behind this new draft policy? Granting the private sector access to public resources is one. But an additional driving force seems to be India’s commitment made in Paris in 2015 to sequester three billion tonnes of carbon dioxide in our forests. “Carbon neutral timber” is listed as the first benefit from forests and a subsection on integrating climate change concerns highlights its importance. Conveniently, the accumulated ₹50,000 crore of NPV monies (called CAMPA, or Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority, funds) provides the means to achieving this carbon target. The CAMPA Act and its recently released rules demonstrate the government’s intent to fall back on state-managed forestry to meet new “national” goals; the draft policy ropes in the private sector as well.

1) According to the passage what was introduced by Supreme Court to regulate forest diversions?

a) Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management act

b) Net present value charge

c) Forest Rights Act

d) Joint forest management

e) None of these

2) Which of the following key focus areas of the forest policy mentioned correct according to the passage?

  1. To decide when and through what process to allow diversion of forest land for “non-forest” activities
  2. It focuses on maximization of products and revenues for the state through the imperial forest department as sole owner, protector and manager of the forest estate.
  3. It focuses on prioritizing benefits also where and through what process.

a) i and iii

b) only iii

c) i and ii

d) ii and iii

e) all are correct

3) What do you mean by the expression “carping about” in the sentence- Carping about the decline in forest productivity, it identifies production forestry and plantations as the new thrust area?

a) To complain about someone or something.

b) To compliment something or someone

c) To adulate someone

d) Giving acclamation

e) None of these

4) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. India committed to isolate three billion tonnes of carbon dioxide in our forests in Paris in 2015
  2. The 1990 Forest Policy recognised the multiple roles of forests and prioritised environmental stability over revenue maximisation.
  3. In past production forestry led to replace natural sal forests with teak plantations in central India

a) i and ii

b) only ii

c) ii and iii

d) all except i

e) all are correct

5) Which of the following has been listed as the first benefit from forests on integrating climate change concerns and its importance?

a) Natural timber

b) Firewood

c) Fodder

d) Bamboo

e) Carbon neutral timber

6) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. The Rs 50,000 crore of NPV monies provides the means to achieving this carbon target.
  2. The Adivasis of Niyamgiri in Odisha exercised CAMPA Act to prevent bauxite mining in their sacred hill tracts.
  3.  The community forest resource provisions of FRA 2006gave communities rights to both access and manage forests.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) all except ii

e) all are correct

7) Which of the following has/have not been mentioned committee correct about Joint forest management in the passage?

  1. Joint forest management focused on recognising the limitations of state-managed forestry
  2. Joint forest management was started to implement the concept of people’s involvement.
  3. Joint forest management (JFM) was initiated in the 1990s
  4. Joint forest management will now enter into public-private partnerships to bring corporate investment into forest lands

a) i and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) iii and iv

e) all are correct

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “sequester” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Renovate

b) Disseminate

c) Vouchsafe

d) Confiscate

e) Babble

9) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “lopsided” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Harmonious

b) Bilateral

c) Commensurate

d) Distorted

e) Symmetrical

10) Choose the word which is most nearly the opposite in meaning of the word “decimated” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Annihilate

b) Obliterate

c) Exterminate

d) Slaughter

e) Formulate

Directions (11-15): Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Below the sentence are five sets of words. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

11) With the RBI ________the whip on bad loans menace, more than three dozen chartered accountants are under the scanner for allegedly _________with promoters in defaulting as well as restructuring the stressed assets.

a) Detonate, colluding

b) Bursting, destroying

c) Cracking, conniving

d) Mending, operating

e) Exploding, intrigue

12) China’s retaliation, and the latest American threats over intellectual property, are more sophisticated, rather than ________one industry, they are meant to ________a trading partner into changing its behaviour.

a) Indulging, nudged

b) Coddling, prod

c) Pampered, poke

d) Accommodating, spiking

e) Fondling, dissuade

13) America’s leading manufacturer of electric vehicles is under pressure, Mr. Musk is fighting battles on many fronts and they all _________his main threat: a financial _______ that could eventually push Tesla over the edge.

a) Inflame, restrained

b) Enrages, crunch

c) Intensifying, force

d) Exacerbate, squeeze

e) Augment, release

14) The RBI lens on chartered accountants for _________illegal activities with defaulting companies also come at a time when a __________ number of stressed assets are being taken up under the insolvency resolution mechanism.

a) Presume, generous

b) Conjecture, consequential

c) Suspected, substantial

d) Surmised, ethereal

e) Reckoned, sound

15) _______over the fact that it has yet again failed to hit its promised target, the company _______that the Model 3 assembly line is now providing “the fastest growth of any automotive company in the modern era.

a) Varnish, exult

b) Burnishing, aggrandize

c) Camouflaging, blustering

d) Glaze, overstated

e) Glossing, boasted

Directions (16-20): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a),b),c),d)Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences

16) Call off

  1. Union leaders called the strike off at the last minute
  2. The moderator finally called the candidate off her misleading statements.
  3.  Go and tell her if she doesn’t want to cook, we can call off the dinner party.
  4. The teacher always calls off the students in the back row to answer questions.

a) i and iii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iv

d) ii and iv

e) all are correct

17) Beef up

  1. The Indian central bank has been beefing up its reserves.
  2. The company has beefed up its e-mail service.
  3. He is always beefing up his working conditions.
  4. They beefed up the offer with another thousand dollars.

a) ii and iv

b) i and iii

c) all except iii

d) i and ii

e) all are correct

18) Hedge against

  1. They hedge against inflation by investing their money.
  2. The investorhedged his portfolio against a drop in stock prices by buying some bonds.
  3. We will hedge against anyrisk we can detect.
  4. I have to hedge my bets against losing.

a) i and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) all except iii

e) all are correct

19) Part with

  1. Buyers might require further assurances before parting with their cash.
  2. It was difficult to part the mother dog with her puppies.
  3. I could never part with my books.
  4. He parted with much of his collection to pay his gardening bills.

a) ii and iv

b) i and iii

c) i and ii

d) all except ii

e) all are correct

20) Rise above

  1. I’m still trying to rise above my tendency to get angry at other drivers.
  2. The huge sun rose above the horizon and spread its red glow across the sea.
  3. I hope that this land rises above value over the next few years
  4. The hike is believed to be fuelled by the recession and a rise above unemployment.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) i and iv

d) ii and iii

e) all are correct

Answers:

Directions (1-10):

1) Correct Answer is:  b)

It is mentioned in para 2- To regulate forest diversions, it (Supreme Court) introduced a high ‘net present value’ (NPV) charge on the lands diverted

2) Correct Answer is:  e)

It is mentioned in para 1-Forest policy, therefore, focuses primarily on which benefits to prioritise, where and through what process. Another focus area is to decide when and through what process to allow diversion of forest land for “non-forest” activities. Forest policy in colonial India focused on maximising products and revenues for the state through the imperial forest department as sole owner, protector and manager of the forest estate.

3) Correct Answer is:  a)

The meaning of carping about is to find fault or complain querulously or unreasonably; be niggling in criticizing.

4) Correct Answer is:  b)

It is mentioned in para 2&4-In the past, production forestry led to replacing natural oak forests with pine monocultures in the Himalayas, natural sal forests with teak plantations in central India, But an additional driving force seems to be India’s commitment made in Paris in 2015 to sequester three billion tonnes of carbon dioxide in our forests. The 1988 Forest Policy recognised the multiple roles of forests and prioritised environmental stability over revenue maximisation.

5) Correct Answer is:  e)

It is mentioned in para 4- Carbon neutral timber” is listed as the first benefit from forests and a subsection on integrating climate change concerns highlights its importance.

6) Correct Answer is:  d)

It is mentioned in para 3&4-Conveniently, the accumulated ₹50,000 crore of NPV monies provides the means to achieving this carbon target, The Adivasis of Niyamgiri in Odisha exercised this (FRA 2006) provision to prevent bauxite mining in their sacred hill tracts, The Forest Rights Act (FRA) of 2006 created a historic opportunity for such devolution. Its community forest resource provisions gave communities rights to both access and manage forests.

7) Correct Answer is:  e)

It is mentioned in para 3&4-Joint forest management (JFM) was initiated in the 1990s to implement the concept of people’s involvement, Equally important, the policy (FRA) emphasised people’s involvement in protecting and regenerating forests, thus formally recognising the limitations of state-managed forestry, Forest development corporations, white elephants of the statist era, are to be the institutional vehicle. But in a neoliberal twist, they will now enter into public-private partnerships (PPPs) to bring corporate investment into forest lands.

8) Correct Answer is:  d)

The meaning of the word sequester is to isolate or seize something

9) Correct Answer is:  d)

The meaning of the word lopsided is unbalanced or asymmetrical

10) Correct Answer is:  e)

The meaning of the word decimated is to destroy, or remove a large proportion of something

Directions (11-15)

11) Correct Answer is:  c)

The meaning of “cracking” is “breaking something” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “conniving” is “involved in conspiring to do something immoral, illegal, or harmful.” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12) Correct Answer is:  b)

The meaning of “coddling” is “to treat (someone) in an indulgent or overprotective way” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “prod” is “to urge or incite someone” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

13) Correct Answer is:  d)

The meaning of “exacerbate” is “to make a problem worse” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “squeeze” is “a strong financial demand or pressure, typically a restriction on borrowing, spending, or investment in a financial crisis” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

14) Correct Answer is:  c)

The meaning of “suspected” is “to have an idea of the truth of (something) without certain proof” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “substantial” is “of considerable importance” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

15) Correct Answer is:  e)

The meaning of “glossing” is “try to conceal or disguise something unfavourable by treating it briefly or representing it misleadingly.” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “boasted” is “talk with excessive pride and self-satisfaction about one’s achievements” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

Directions (16-20):

16) Correct Answer is:  a)

The meaning of “call off” is “to cancel or abandon or to stop (something) or give the order to stop” and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences.

17) Correct Answer is:  c)

The meaning of “beef up” is “to add strength or substance to something or to strengthen by addition, reinforcement etc” and the phrase has been applied properly in i, ii and iv sentences.

18) Correct Answer is:  e)

The meaning of “hedge against” is “to protect investments against a decline in value or to do something to lessen the risk of something happening” and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences.

19) Correct Answer is:  d)

The meaning of “part with” is “to give up or let go of someone or something or to relinquish something” and the phrase has been applied properly in i, iii and iv sentences

20) Correct Answer is:  a)

The meaning of “rise above” is “to move up above something or to overcome or be unaffected by (something mean or contemptible)” and the phrase has been applied properly in i and ii sentences

Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck

Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Logical Reasoning 10.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
Static GK Quiz 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Banking Awareness Quiz 3.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM
General / Financial Awareness Quiz 9.00 PM

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