“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI Clerk / IDBI Executive 2018 Day-80

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 (Day-80)

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Direction (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

Thirty years ago, income distribution in India was regarded as relatively equal, at least in international comparison. Meanwhile, Brazil was breaking world records for inequality. Today, inequality in India is high and increasing, while in Brazil it has declined substantially since the 1990s. As a result, on many measures India is now more unequal than Brazil. At the global level, inequality has become a central concern, and not just among politicians and intellectuals of the left it is on the agenda of major international institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank, and is a key subject of debate in the Davos meetings of the World Economic Forum. The reasons are not hard to see. High inequality can be a threat to both political stability and economic growth; and it raises fundamental ethical questions about the fairness of both global and national economies. Brazil went through a period of rapid growth before 1980. In this process, the labour market became more segmented, with an increasing number of protected, regular workers but a widening gap with the informal economy. The middle class also expanded, with high incomes and consumption. The result was a dynamic of development in which the bulk of the benefits were captured by a relatively small fraction of the population. While the circumstances of India’s rapid growth since the 1980s are different, there are clearly echoes of the earlier pattern in Brazil. In India, liberalization released some of the factors that had previously prevented an increase in the concentration of income, and this has led to wider gaps in the labour market, where many are excluded from the new opportunities, and has generated a highly unequal accumulation of wealth.

From the 1990s onwards there was widespread recognition of the adverse economic and social consequences of increased inequality in Brazil. Especially after the turn of the century, state policies aimed to increase the numbers of workers with adequate social protection and rights at work, raised the minimum wage, and greatly expanded the transfers of income to poor families. The Gini coefficient of income inequality fell from 0.60 in 1993 to 0.53 in 2012. In India too, policies were introduced after 2005 which helped to moderate the rise in inequality, especially in rural areas, notably MGNREGA and improvements in the PDS. But the scale and scope of social policy was less than in Brazil, formal employment stagnated, minimum wages hardly rose in real terms and urban inequality continued to rise, as did the gap between urban and rural areas. These patterns reflect the growth regimes in the two countries, which are built on the social and economic institutions labour institutions, agrarian systems, market functioning, financial mechanisms, state interventions, international linkages that underpin investment, production and job creation. Inequality arises out of the ways these institutions distribute economic opportunities, structure labour markets and influence the returns to labour and to capital. It also reflects the basic, persistent cleavages of each society. For instance, wage differences between men and women have been reduced in both countries, but this is only relevant for those who succeed in obtaining wage work. In India, standard measures of women’s labour force participation have been declining, suggesting that gender inequality in access to employment is increasing. Meanwhile, in Brazil, female labour force participation has doubled since 1980 and today there is much less gender inequality in employment than in India. There are also persistent differentials in employment and incomes by caste and community in India. Like for gender, this results less from direct wage discrimination, and more from differences in access to education and decent jobs. In contrast, racial disparities in the Brazilian labour market have declined substantially in recent years

Although inequality has declined in Brazil the country is now in a deep economic and political crisis; meanwhile, rising inequality in India does not seem to have yet had major political repercussions and the economy continues to grow. In Brazil, the present situation is in part due to the global financial crisis that started in 2008 and subsequent macroeconomic policy errors. But it also reflects a middle-class backlash against redistribution once economic growth stalled. Some of the social and labour policies put in place in the period 2002-12 are now being reversed, former President Lula da Silva who led the effort to reduce inequality at that time has been jailed on corruption charges, and inequality is again rising. This is reviving social tensions, and inequality is at the heart of the political debate. In India, inequality is strangely absent from the political agenda for instance, it is hardly mentioned in the last two Economic Surveys. Attention is more focussed on poverty reduction and the relative position of particular social groups. But the strains are increasing. There is growing awareness of increasing relative poverty, as casual construction labourers build gleaming commercial centres; many groups are demanding an increased share of good jobs through wider reservations; recent policies such as demonetization and the introduction of GST appear to have had adverse distributional consequences that were not anticipated; increasing concentration of income can lead to shortfalls in demand and distorted patterns of investment. There is a lack of reliable data on changes in inequality in recent years, but wages have been rising more slowly than output per capita, and there is no sign that the increasing trend in inequality has been reversed.

 

1) According to the passage high inequality causes major threat to which of the following given segments?

  1. Political stability
  2. Output per capita
  3. Economic growth

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) only iii

d) i and iii

e) All of these

2) Which of the following statements have been mentioned true about the inequality?

  1. Inequality reflects the basic, persistent cleavages of each society
  2. Inequality augment fundamental ethical questions about the fairness of global and national economies.
  3. Inequality appear to have had unfavorable distributional outcomes that were not predicted

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) only ii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

3) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. Female labour force participation has doubled since 1980 in brazil
  2. Wage differences between men and women have been increased in India as well as brazil
  3.  In Brazil the global financial crisis took place in 2008

a) only i

b) ii and iii

c) i and iii

d) i and ii

e) None of these

4) Which of the following have been mentioned correct about India as according to the passage?

  1. In India, standard measures of women’s labour force participation have been increasing
  2. In India there are constant differentials in employment and incomes by caste and community
  3. In India policies were introduced after 2005 which helped to moderate the rise in inequality especially in rural areas

a) i and ii

b) only iii

c) i and iii

d) ii and iii

e) All are correct

5) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. President Lula da Silva has been jailed on corruption charges because he led the effort to reduce inequality
  2. Policies such as demonetization and the introduction of GST appear to have had disadvantageous distributional consequences
  3. Wages have been rising and there is sign that the increasing trend in inequality has been reversed.

a) i and ii

b) only ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

6) According to the passage which of the following statements has/have not been mentioned true about Brazil?

  1. In Brazil, female labour force participation has doubled since 1980 and today there is much less gender inequality in employment
  2. Before 1980 Brazil went through a period of rapid growth, during this the labour market became more digressive, with an increasing number of protected regular workers
  3. In recent years racial disparities in the Brazilian labour market have declined substantially

a) Only iii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “anticipated” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Apprehension

b) Reluctance

c) Perplexity

d) Prophesy

e) Dubiousness

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word gleaming printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Coruscate

b) Sluggish

c) Tedious

d) Insensate

e) Moronic

9) Choose the word which is opposite in meaning of the word “repercussions” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Reverberation

b) Imprint

c) Causation

d) Aftermath

e) Foot print

10) Choose the word which is opposite in meaning of the word “backlash” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Counterblast

b) Incitement

c) Resentment

d) Boomerang

e) Retroaction

Directions (11-15): Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Below the sentence are five sets of words. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

11) While details of the discussions were kept as vague as possible, aside from the insistence it was eventually _________there seemed little excitement and more a sense of ________acceptance at the prospect of the new leadership.

a) Concerted, resent

b) Unanimous, grudging

c) Harmonious, sanctioning

d) Prorated, envious

e) Communal, grumble

12) After the Guardian published Edward Snowden’s ________secrets, employees from GCHQ, the national digital spying agency, _______into the newspaper’s offices and destroyed their hard drives.

a) Scrounge, drilled

b) Liberated, promenade

c) Snared, retreated

d) Pilfered, marched

e) Pirated, halted

13) The challenge is to convince policymakers of not only the need to address public ________over air pollution but also to persuade them to understand that _______ behavioural change requires more than subsidising the machinery.

a) Outrage, inducing

b) Atrocity, procured

c) Ravishing, actuate

d) Barbarism, prompted

e) Hilarity, instigating

14) In the 1970s and early 1980s the trust’s share price traded at a big discount to its asset value, other trusts ________ to takeovers and the sector seemed _______ to disappear.

a) Capitulate, bewitched

b) Perished, intact

c) Succumbed, doomed

d) Acceded, anticipated

e) Knuckle, wrecked

15) Amazon dreams of using drones to _______ delivery to the doorstep, And in spite of new rivals and continued universal service obligations, the sheer scale of post offices still give them a big ________ advantage.

a) Rummaged, correlative

b) Disrupt, comparative

c) Muddles, allusive

d) Agitated, contingent

e) Appease, metamorphical

Directions (16-20): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a),b),c),d)Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences

16) Fob off

  1. Some car dealers are always trying to fob something off.
  2. The landlord fobbed off the tenants’ complaints for another month.
  3.  I’ve asked her about it but she fobs me off.
  4. Don’t be fobbed off with excuses

a) ii and iii

b) i and iv

c) i and ii

d) all except iv

e) All are correct

17) Stick at

  1. You’ll never learn to play the piano if you’re not going to stick at it.
  2. He doesn’t seem to be able to stick at anything for very long.
  3.  I will stick it at as long as I can.
  4. She’s never stuck at one job for more than six months.

a) iii and iv

b) i and iii

c) i and ii

d) all except iii

e) All are correct

18) Lead up to

  1. A narrow path led up to the door of the cottage.
  2. The coach led up to Walter as pitcher and Sam on first base
  3. They had a series of arguments, leading up to a decision to separate.
  4. We will lead up to our best players.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) i and iii

d) ii and iv

e) All are correct

19) Fold into

  1. He folded the paper into a little bird
  2. Carefully, the chef folded the eggs into the other ingredients.
  3.  The table just folded into with no warning, trapping my leg.
  4. She folded into when she heard the news.

a) ii and iv

b) i and iii

c) iii and iv

d) i and ii

e) All are correct

20) Make for

  1. He could make for a ship in the distance
  2. After he left the office he made straight for home
  3. I made for the life raft and hung on for dear life
  4. The doctor made out for a prescription.

a) iii and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and iv

d) all except i

e) All are correct

Answers:

Direction (1-10):

1) Correct Answer is: d)

It is mentioned in para 1- High inequality can be a threat to both political stability and economic growth.

2) Correct Answer is: a)

It is mentioned in para 1&2- It also reflects the basic, persistent cleavages of each society, it raises fundamental ethical questions about the fairness of both global and national economies.

3) Correct Answer is: c)

It is mentioned in para 2&3- in Brazil, female labour force participation has doubled since 1980 and today there is much less gender inequality in employment than in India, In Brazil, the present situation is in part due to the global financial crisis that started in 2008.

4) Correct Answer is: d)

It is mentioned clearly in para 1&2-There are also persistent differentials in employment and incomes by caste and community in India, In India too, policies were introduced after 2005 which helped to moderate the rise in inequality, especially in rural areas. In India, standard measures of women’s labour force participation have been declining, suggesting that gender inequality in access to employment is increasing.

5) Correct Answer is: d)

It is mentioned clearly in para 3-Some of the social and labour policies put in place in the period 2002-12 are now being reversed, former President Lula da Silva who led the effort to reduce inequality at that time has been jailed on corruption charges, wages have been rising more slowly than output per capita, and there is no sign that the increasing trend in inequality has been reversed, recent policies such as demonetization and the introduction of GST appear to have had adverse distributional consequences that were not anticipated.

6) Correct Answer is: a)

It is mentioned in para 1&2- Meanwhile, in Brazil, female labour force participation has doubled since 1980 and today there is much less gender inequality in employment than in India, In contrast, racial disparities in the Brazilian labour market have declined substantially in recent years, Brazil went through a period of rapid growth before 1980. In this process, the labour market became more segmented, with an increasing number of protected, regular workers but a widening gap with the informal economy.

7) Correct Answer is: d)

 It means regard as probable; expect or predict

8) Correct Answer is: a)

 It means shine brightly, especially with reflected light

9) Correct Answer is: c)

 It means an unintended consequence of an event or action

10) Correct Answer is: b)

It means a strong negative reaction by a large number of people, especially to a social or political development.

Directions (11-15):

11) Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “unanimous” is “(of two or more people) fully in agreement or united” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “grudging” is “unwilling” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12) Correct Answer is: d)

 The meaning of “pilfered” is “to take over or steal” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “marched” is “walk quickly and with determination” so it is appropriate for ii blank

13) Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “outrage” is “an extremely strong reaction of anger” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “inducing” is “bring about or give rise to” so it is appropriate for ii blank

14) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “succumbed” is “fail to resist pressure or some other negative force” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “doomed” is “likely to have an unfortunate and inescapable outcome” so it is appropriate for ii blank

15) Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “disrupt” is “interrupt a process by causing problem” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “comparative” is “close to or relative” so it is appropriate for ii blank

Directions (16-20):

16) Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “fob off” is to appease or trick a person with lies or excuses or to dispose of and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences.

17) Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “stick at is “to keep trying to do something or to stay on a task or job” and the phrase has been applied properly in i, ii and iv sentences.

18) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “lead up to is “to aim at or route movement to something or to proceed toward something” and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences.

19) Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “fold into is “to blend something or to make an object by folding something” and the phrase has been applied properly in i and ii sentences.

20) Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “make for is “to move or head towards or tend to result in or be received as” and the phrase has been applied properly in ii and iii sentences.

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Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Logical Reasoning 10.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
Static GK Quiz 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Banking Awareness Quiz 3.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM
General / Financial Awareness Quiz 9.00 PM

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