“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 Day-84

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 (Day-84)

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Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

According to a recent report by the International Labour Organisation, India and Pakistan have the lowest rates of women’s labour force participation in Asia, in sharp contrast to Nepal, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia that have the highest, with richer nations like Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia falling in between. Moreover, even this low rate of labour force participation seems to be declining. The National Sample Survey found that while in 1999-2000, 25.9% of all women worked, by 2011-12 this proportion had dropped to 21.9%. This is in stark contrast to worldwide trends. Of the 185 nations that are part of the ILO database, since the 1990s, 114 countries have recorded an increase in the proportion of women in the workforce, and only 41 recorded declines, with India leading the pack. A heartening explanation could be that with rising incomes, women have the opportunity to escape harsh labour in farms and on construction sites, and focus on their families. But a more pessimistic and possibly realistic explanation might be that with declining farm sizes, rising mechanisation, and consequently dwindling labour demands in agriculture, women are being forced out of the workforce. If true, this has serious implications for future policy. The India Human Development Survey, jointly organised by researchers from the National Council of Applied Economic Research and the University of Maryland, finds that the provision of work under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act has brought more rural women into wage labour. Among MGNREGA workers in 2011-12, a whopping 45% were not in wage labour before the scheme was initiated.

Moreover, the provision of MGNREGA work has far greater impact on women’s paid work than that of men. Increased availability of wage work also enhances women’s control over household decision-making. Since NREGA work by itself cannot be expected to provide consistent stable employment for women, it is imperative to explore other avenues. From a policy perspective, two main challenges have to be addressed for augmenting women’s workforce participation rates. First, in view of shrinking farm work, we need to create opportunities for women to move from agricultural to non-agricultural manual work. Second, we must foster a work environment that allows more women, especially urban and educated women, to take up salaried jobs. Such work has a cascading effect as construction of concrete roads also improves transportation services such as buses, which, in turn, could facilitate movement of the rural workforce, especially women, into non-agricultural work in neighbouring villages and towns. At the other end of the employment spectrum, however, there is a need to make it possible for educated women to continue to work even while raising families. In a context where women continue to bear the major share of household work and childcare, the prevalence of a rigid work environment in India and the dearth of family-friendly work institutions create impediments to women’s access to white-collar jobs in the formal sector. Second, long distances between the home and the workplace increase both commuting time and work burdens, leaving workers with even less time for family duties. Another aspect of the skewed work-family equation for women in India is the demand for investing in children’s education over professional achievement. Research by Alaka Basu, a sociologist at Cornell University, and Sonalde Desai highlights the contrast between the reasons for fertility decline in the West, where it was fuelled by the desire for self-fulfillment among both men and women, and in India, where small families have emanated from the desire to promote future achievements of children by focusing on their education rather than on better employment prospects for the parents. This has led to urban and educated Indian women dropping out of the labour pool in contradistinction to their counterparts in Japan and Korea, for example, who have instead opted out of marriage, resulting in a dip in fertility rates in the latter countries to barely 1.3 children per couple.

Neither of these, however, seems an optimal outcome for society. The only way this conundrum can be addressed is by encouraging workplaces to become more responsive to family needs and to promote sharing of household responsibilities between both genders something that Scandinavian countries have emphasised. With rising global competition, Indian firms have chosen to follow the American model with demands for extended work hours as well as attendance on Saturdays and Sundays. This creates a time bind for both men and women where something must give. An interesting repercussion of this work dynamic is reflected in a recent study titled Millennial Careers 2020 Vision, by ManpowerGroup, conducted across 25 countries and encompassing 19,000 working millennials and 1,500 hiring managers. The study found that young workers in India worked 52 hours per week as against, say, 42 hours by their counterparts in Canada. Work-family balance requires increased participation by men in household chores and caring for children. However, the numeric consequences of reducing obstacles to women’s full economic participation far exceed the demographic advantages of having a larger pool of young workers. It is thus high time to talk of the gender dividend rather than the demographic dividend.

1) According to the passage what are the main challenges to be addressed to increase women’s workforce participation?

  1. There is a need to create opportunities for women to move from agricultural to non-agricultural manual work.
  2. There is a need you encourage workplaces to become more responsive to family needs
  3. There is a need to nurture a work environment that allows more women, especially urban and educated women, to begin salaried jobs

a) Only iii

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

2) Which of the following given statement is mentioned in the study titled Millennial Careers 2020 Vision?

  1. It has been found that there is a dip in fertility rates in the Japan and Korea to barely 1.3 children per couple.
  2. It has been found that young workers in India worked 52 hours per week as against, 42 hours by their counterparts in Canada.
  3. It has been found that 25.9% of all women worked, by 2011-12 had dropped to 21.9%.

a) i and iii

b) only ii

c) ii and iii

d) only i

e) All are correct

3) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. Indian firms have chosen to follow the European model with demands for extended work hours as well as attendance on Saturdays and Sundays
  2. The foundation of MGNREGA work has far greater impact on women’s paid work than that of men
  3. The India Human Development Survey was jointly organised by researchers from the National Council of Applied Economic Research and the University of Queensland

a) Only iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) ii and iii

e) None of these

4) According to the passage which of the following given statements is not mentioned in the report by International Labour Organisation?

  1. India and Pakistan have the lowest rates of women’s labour force participation in Asia
  2. Countries like Nepal, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia that have the highest women’s labour force participation
  3. Among MGNREGA workers in 2011-12, an immense 45% were not in wage labour before the scheme was initiated.

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) all except i

d) only iii

e) None of these

5) Which of the following has been mentioned as an explanation of declined women’s workforce in India since1990s?

a) With rise in incomes women have the opportunity to run out of harsh labour in farms construction sites.

b) Decreased farm sizes

c) Rising mechanisation

d) Diminishing labour demands in agriculture

e) All of these

6) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. The India Human Development Survey finds that the provision of work under NSS has brought more rural women into wage labour
  2. As per the data of International Labour Organisation, since the 1990s of the185 nations 114 countries have recorded an increase in the proportion of women in the workforce
  3. According to the research by Alaka Basu and Sonalde Desai it had found the reasons for fertility decline in the West which is incited by the desire for self-fulfillment among both men and women

a) i and ii

b) only iii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) All are true

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “augmenting” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Abridge

b) Truncate

c) Summarize

d) Exacerbate

e) Abbreviate

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “emanated” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Retention

b) Tenacity

c) Clinched

d) Occupancy

e) Radiate

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “cascading” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Disgorge

b) Splashed

c) Descend

d) Plunge

e) Heave

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “conundrum” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Enigma

b) Dilemma

c) Acknowledged

d) Stumper

e) Poser

Directions (11-15): choose the set of word for each blank that best fits sentence and are grammatically correct.

11) More services could be provided if that money and the risk of falling ill were _______, the evidence for the feasibility of universal health care goes beyond theories _______on the back of prescription pads.

a) Amalgamate, recorded

b) Consolidated, scribble

c) Pooled, jotted

d) Abstracted, registered

e) Leagued, scrawl

12) Notwithstanding these, the dark _________ of a collapse of GDP growth numbers, widespread unemployment and displacement of job workers coupled with rural distress now looks clearly _________ with actual outcomes.

a) Prevision, incline

b) Summation, crooked

c) Speculated, eccentric

d) Diagnosis, slanting

e) Prognosis, misaligned

13) The governance architecture _______ in several actions and intended autonomy cannot be totally divorced from the ownership pattern, creating an enabling political ________ for deeper reforms is inescapable.

a) Ingrained, numbness

b) Embedded, milieu

c) Encapsulate, ambience

d) Immure, sphere

e) Petrified, insensibility

14) Continued fiscal consolidation, a modest current account deficit, subdued inflation and private consumption somewhat ________ the depressed private investment support this conclusion, these ______ well for continued growth buoyancy.

a) Negates, oracles

b) Approbating, harbinger

c) Offsetting, augur

d) Countervail, warrant

e) Requiting, insure

15) The twin balance sheet problem of both corporates and banks, highlighted in the Economic Survey, has a relationship but would need _________ actions, easing one will no doubt _______ the other but policy frameworks are not necessarily symmetrical.

a) Demarcate, upgrade

b) Extricated, alleviate

c) Contrasted, aggravate

d) Comprehend, mitigate

e) Differentiated, ameliorate

 

Directions (16-20): Each of the following sentences are divided into parts, which are marked a, b, c and d. One of these parts may contain an error. Mark that part as your answer from the options given below and choose e if you find out there is no error. (Ignore punctuation error if any)

16) Resource mobilisation has to increase ten-fold a)/ for India to afford the universal basic b)/ income without cutting it on c)/ other social welfare programmes d)/no error e)/

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

17) The problem is somewhat complicated, by the Reserve a)/ Bank acting upon the principal banking ombudsman b)/with inherent conflict of interest and in the c)/ long run, we need an alternative mechanism for the banking sector d)/no error e)/

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

18) The IMF warned on April 18th that global debt is a)/ higher than ever, relative to GDP, the risk that b)/ high borrowing costs could sharply slow growth c)/ought to dissuade central banks from tightening monetary policy too quickly d)/no error e)/

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

19) Seek to replicate best governance practices in a)/ labour and product markets among the b)/ States could also prove beneficial in c)/mitigating inter-State growth divergence d)/no error e)/

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

20) America is leading the way, the Federal Reserve a)/ is paring on its bond holdings and b)/after the tax cuts passed in December, trillion-dollar deficits are forecast from 2020.

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

Answers:

Directions (1-10):

  1. Correct Answer is: d)

It is mentioned in para 2-First, in view of shrinking farm work, we need to create opportunities for women to move from agricultural to non-agricultural manual work. Second, we must foster a work environment that allows more women, especially urban and educated women, to take up salaried jobs.

  1. Correct Answer is: b)

It is mentioned in para 3-The study found that young workers in India worked 52 hours per week as against, say, 42 hours by their counterparts in Canada.

  1. Correct Answer is: c)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1, 2&3- With rising global competition, Indian firms have chosen to follow the American model with demands for extended work hours as well as attendance on Saturdays and Sundays, The India Human Development Survey, jointly organised by researchers from the National Council of Applied Economic Research and the University of Maryland, Moreover, the provision of MGNREGA work has far greater impact on women’s paid work than that of men.

  1. Correct Answer is: d)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1-According to a recent report by the International Labour Organisation, India and Pakistan have the lowest rates of women’s labour force participation in Asia, in sharp contrast to Nepal, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia that have the highest, with richer nations like Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia.

  1. Correct Answer is: e)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1-A heartening explanation could be that with rising incomes, women have the opportunity to escape harsh labour in farms and on construction sites, and focus on their families. But a more pessimistic and possibly realistic explanation might be that with declining farm sizes, rising mechanisation, and consequently dwindling labour demands in agriculture, women are being forced out of the workforce

  1. Correct Answer is: c)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1&2-Of the 185 nations that are part of the ILO database, since the 1990s, 114 countries have recorded an increase in the proportion of women in the workforce, and only 41 recorded declines, with India leading the pack, The India Human Development Survey, jointly organised by researchers from the National Council of Applied Economic Research and the University of Maryland, finds that the provision of work under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act has brought more rural women into wage labour, Research by Alaka Basu, a sociologist at Cornell University, and Sonalde Desai highlights the contrast between the reasons for fertility decline in the West, where it was fuelled by the desire for self-fulfillment among both men and women

  1. Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of word augmenting is to make something greater by adding to it

  1. Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of word emanated is to discharge, spread out or originate from; be produced by.

  1. Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of word cascading is to pour downwards rapidly and in large quantities or pass something on to a succession

  1. Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of word conundrum is a confusing and difficult problem or question.

 

Directions (11-15):

  1. Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “pooled” is “to combine or put together” and it is suitable for i  blank and the meaning of “jotted” is “to write something quickly or make a note of ” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

  1. Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “prognosis” is “a forecast of the likely outcome of a situation” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “misaligned” is “having an incorrect position or alignment” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

  1. Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “embedded” is “to fix firmly and deeply in a surrounding mass” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “milieu” is “a person’s social environment or surroundings” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

  1. Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “offsetting” is “to counteract something by having an equal and opposite force or effect” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “augur” is “to predict or denote” so it is appropriate for ii blank

  1. Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “differentiated” is “recognize what makes someone or something different” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “ameliorate” is “to make something better or to improve something” so it is appropriate for ii blank

 

Directions (16-20):

  1. Correct Answer is: c)

In part c in place of it, it should be back (cut back is a phrasal verb which means an act or instance of reducing something, especially expenditure)

  1. Correct Answer is: b)

In part b in place of upon, it should be as

  1. Correct Answer is: c)

In part c in place of high, it should be higher

  1. Correct Answer is: a)

In part a in place of seek, it should be seeking

  1. Correct Answer is: b)

In part b in place of on, it should be back (pare back means to reduce or remove by or as by cutting; diminish or decrease gradually)

Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck

Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Logical Reasoning 10.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
Static GK Quiz 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Banking Awareness Quiz 3.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM
General / Financial Awareness Quiz 9.00 PM

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