IBPS Clerk Prelims 2018 (Reading Comprehension)- English Questions Day-15

Dear Readers, Bank Exam Race for the Year 2018 is already started, To enrich your preparation here we have providing new series of Practice Questions on English language – Section. Candidates those who are preparing for IBPS Clerk Prelims 2018 Exams can practice these questions daily and make your preparation effective.

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IBPS Clerk Prelims 2018 – English Questions Day-15

maximum of 10 points
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Direction (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

October 15 is observed, respectively, as International Day of Rural Women by the United Nations, and National Women’s Farmer’s Day (Rashtriya Mahila Kisan Diwas) in India. In 2016, the Minis         try of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare decided to take the lead in celebrating the event, duly recognising the multidimensional role of women at every stage in agriculture from sowing to planting, drainage, irrigation, fertilizer, plant protection, harvesting, weeding, and storage. This year, the Ministry has proposed deliberations to discuss the challenges that women farmers face in crop cultivation, animal husbandry, dairying and fisheries. The aim is to work towards an action plan using better access to credit, skill development and entrepreneurial opportunities. Yet, paying lip service to them is not going to alleviate their drudgery and hardships in the fields. According to Oxfam India, women are responsible for about 60-80% of food and 90% of dairy production, respectively. Attempts by the government to impart them training in poultry, apiculture and rural handicrafts is trivial given their large numbers. In order to sustain women’s interest in farming and also their uplift, there must be a vision backed by an appropriate policy and doable action plans. The Agriculture Census (2010-11) shows that out of an estimated 118.7 million cultivators, 30.3% were females. Similarly, out of an estimated 144.3 million agricultural labourers, 42.6% were females. In terms of ownership of operational holdings, the latest Agriculture Census (2015-16) is startling. Out of a total 146 million operational holdings, the percentage share of female operational holders is 13.87% (20.25 million), a nearly one percentage increase over five years. While the “feminisation of agriculture” is taking place at a fast pace, the government has yet to gear up to address the challenges that women farmers and labourers face.

In March 2018, on International Women’s Day, CTA launched a programme called VALUE4HER, which aims to increase the prosperity of women in agriculture by linking them to international buyers and markets. VALUE4HER will build women’s capacity in terms of leadership and business skills and teach them how to operate in the international marketplace. CTA has experience of supporting young entrepreneurs to build successful ICT-enabled agribusinesses via programmes like Pitch AgriHack, which offers entrepreneurs business training, mentorship, incubation and networking opportunities. This year’s Pitch AgriHack competition focuses on empowering women entrepreneurs in the ICT for agriculture space: 50% of the selected start-ups are led by women. To ensure that these young people, especially women, reach their full potential it is imperative that we equip them with the skills and opportunities needed to progress a sustainable and productive agri-food sector. CTA is therefore supporting the GODAN Action Project, which aims to build the capacity of a range of stakeholders, particularly women, in using open data to develop solutions for increased agricultural productivity and resilience. The biggest challenge is the powerlessness of women in terms of claiming ownership of the land they have been cultivating. In Census 2015, almost 86% of women farmers are devoid of this property right in land perhaps on account of the patriarchal set up in our society. Notably, a lack of ownership of land does not allow women farmers to approach banks for institutional loans as banks usually consider land as collateral. Research worldwide shows that women with access to secure land, formal credit and access to market have greater propensity in making investments in improving harvest, increasing productivity, and improving household food security and nutrition. Provision of credit without collateral under the micro-finance initiative of the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development should be encouraged. Better access to credit, technology, and provision of entrepreneurship abilities will further boost women’s confidence and help them gain recognition as farmers. As of now, women farmers have hardly any representation in society and are nowhere discernible in farmers’ organisations or in occasional protests. They are the invisible workers without which the agricultural economy is hard to grow.

Second, land holdings have doubled over the years with the result that the average size of farms has shrunk. Therefore, a majority of farmers fall under the small and marginal category, having less than 2 ha of land — a category that, undisputedly, includes women farmers. A declining size of land holdings may act as a deterrent due to lower net returns earned and technology adoption. The possibility of collective farming can be encouraged to make women self-reliant. Training and skills imparted to women as has been done by some self-help groups and cooperative-based dairy activities. These can be explored further through farmer producer organisations. Moreover, government flagship schemes such as the National Food Security Mission, Sub-mission on Seed and Planting Material and the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana must include women-centric strategies and dedicated expenditure. Third, female cultivators and labourers generally perform labour-intensive tasks (hoeing, grass cutting, weeding, picking, cotton stick collection, looking after livestock). In addition to working on the farm, they have household and familial responsibilities. An increased work burden with lower compensation is a key factor responsible for their marginalisation. It is important to have gender-friendly tools and machinery for various farm operations. Most farm machinery is difficult for women to operate. Manufacturers should be incentivised to come up with better solutions. Farm machinery banks and custom hiring centres promoted by many State governments can be roped in to provide subsidised rental services to women farmers. Last, when compared to men, women generally have less access to resources and modern inputs (seeds, fertilizers, pesticides) to make farming more productive. The Food and Agriculture Organisation says that equalising access to productive resources for female and male farmers could increase agricultural output in developing countries by as much as 2.5% to 4%. Krishi Vigyan Kendras in every district can be assigned an additional task to educate and train women farmers about innovative technology along with extension services. As more women are getting into farming, the foremost task for their sustenance is to assign property rights in land.

1) According to the passage which of the following statement has been mentioned correct about VALUE4HER programme?

i) The programme aims to increase the prosperity of women in agriculture by linking them to international buyers and markets

ii) It was launched by CTA on International Women’s Day

iii) The programme aims to provide better delivery of irrigation water

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) Only i

d) i and iii

e) None of these

2) According to the passage which of the following statement is correct as per the report of Oxfam India?

a) Agricultural growth has been slowed down, averaging about 3.5% per annum, and cereal yields have increased by only 1.4% per annum

b) The country has some 195 m ha under cultivation of which some 63 percent are rainfed of India’s land.

c) Women are responsible for about 90% of dairy production and 60-80% of food

d) Majority of India’s poor i.e. about some 770 million people are found in rural areas.

e) None of these

3) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

i) As per the Agriculture Census (2010-11), 30.3% were females out of an estimated 118.7 million cultivators

ii) Agriculture’s share in India’s economy has progressively declined to less than 17% due to the high growth rates of the industrial and services sectors

iii) As per the data the percentage share of female operational holders is 13.87% out of a total 146 million operational holdings

a) ii and iii

b) i and iii

c) Only i

d) Only iii

e) None of these

4) According to the passage what measures must be taken in order to elevate women’s place as real and visible farmers.

i) Provision of credit without collateral should be encouraged under the micro-finance initiative of the NABARD

ii) There must be better access to credit as well as technology

iii) Boosting of entrepreneurship abilities will further foster women’s confidence

a) i and ii

b) All except ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

5) Which of the following government flagship scheme has not been mentioned in the passage?

a) National Food Security Mission,

b) Sub-mission on Seed and Planting Material

c) Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana

d) Kisan sampada yojana

e) All are mentioned

6) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

a) GODAN Action Project aims to build the capacity of a range of stakeholders in using open data to develop solutions for increased agricultural productivity and pliability

b) Pitch AgriHack competition focuses on empowering women entrepreneurs in the ICT for agriculture space

c) International Day of Rural Women and National Women’s Farmer’s day is observed on October 15

d) As per the Food and Agriculture Organisation, equalising access to productive resources for female and male farmers could increase agricultural output by as much as 3.5% to 5%

e) Women are 14% less likely to own a mobile phone than men, which means there is limited access to the mobile phone-enabled services that are helping farmers to stay informed and receive financial support

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “propensity” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Penchant

b) Antipathy

c) Demur

d) Repugnance

e) Loathness

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “discernible” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Vague

b) Cryptic

c) Apparent

d) Enigmatic

e) Dubious

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “drudgery” in bold as used in the passage

a) Struggle

b) Travail

c) Workout

d) Slavery

e) Delight

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “deliberations” in bold as used in the passage

a) Speculation

b) Nonchalance

c) Prudence

d) Attention

e) Heed

Answers:

1) Answer: a)

It is clearly mentioned in para 2- In March 2018, on International Women’s Day, CTA launched a programme called VALUE4HER, which aims to increase the prosperity of women in agriculture by linking them to international buyers and markets.

2) Answer: c)

It is mentioned in para 1- According to Oxfam India, women are responsible for about 60-80% of food and 90% of dairy production, respectively.

3) Answer: b)

It is mentioned in para 1- The Agriculture Census (2010-11) shows that out of an estimated 118.7 million cultivators, 30.3% were females. In terms of ownership of operational holdings, the latest Agriculture Census (2015-16) is startling. Out of a total 146 million operational holdings, the percentage share of female operational holders is 13.87% (20.25 million), a nearly one percentage increase over five years.

4) Answer: e)

it is mentioned in para 2- Research worldwide shows that women with access to secure land, formal credit and access to market have greater propensity in making investments in improving harvest, increasing productivity, and improving household food security and nutrition. Provision of credit without collateral under the micro-finance initiative of the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development should be encouraged. Better access to credit, technology, and provision of entrepreneurship abilities will further boost women’s confidence and help them gain recognition as farmers.

5) Answer: d)

It is mentioned in para 3- Moreover, government flagship schemes such as the National Food Security Mission, Sub-mission on Seed and Planting Material and the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana must include women-centric strategies and dedicated expenditure.

6) Answer: d)

It is mentioned in para 3- The Food and Agriculture Organisation says that equalising access to productive resources for female and male farmers could increase agricultural output in developing countries by as much as 2.5% to 4%.

7) Answer: a)

The meaning of propensity is natural tendency to behave in a particular way.

8) Answer: c)

The meaning of discernible is visible or noticeable

9) Answer: e)

The meaning of drudgery is hard work or labour

10) Answer: b)

The meaning of deliberations is long and careful consideration or discussion.

Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck

Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz (Hindi) 9.30 AM
IBPS Clerk Prelims – Reasoning 10.00 AM
IBPS Clerk Prelims – Reasoning (Hindi) 10.30 AM
IBPS Clerk Prelims – Quantitative Aptitude 11.00 AM
IBPS Clerk Prelims – Quantitative Aptitude (Hindi) 11.30 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
IBPS Clerk Prelims – English Language 1.00 PM
SSC Practice Questions (Reasoning/Quantitative aptitude) 2.00 PM
IBPS PO/Clerk – GK Questions 3.00 PM
SSC Practice Questions (English/General Knowledge) 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
IBPS PO Mains – Reasoning 6.00 PM
IBPS PO Mains – Quantitative Aptitude 7.00 PM
IBPS PO Mains – English Language 8.00 PM

 

 

 

 

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