Crack IBPS Clerk Prelims 2018 – Sectional Full Test-14 | English Language

Dear Readers, Take Free English Sectional Test of 30 Questions as like in the real exam to analyze your preparation level. Our Sectional Test Questions are taken as per the latest exam pattern and so it will be really useful for you to crack the prelims exam lucratively. Students who are weak in English Language should utilize this chance constructively to accomplish a successful profession in Banking Field.

Are You preparing for IBPS PO 2019? Start your preparation with Free IBPS PO Mock Test 2019 – Take Test Now

Crack IBPS Clerk Prelims 2018 – Sectional Full Test-14 | English Language

maximum of 30 points
Table is loading

Click Here for IBPS Clerk Prelims 2018 High-Quality Mocks

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

The first precursors of banks can be traced as far back as ancient Mesopotamia, where temples, royal palaces, and some private houses served to store valuable commodities like grain, the ownership of which could be transferred via written receipts. There are records of loans by the temples of Babylon as early as 2000 BC; temples were considered safe, because they were sacred places watched over by gods, and should be protected from theft. Companies of traders in ancient times provided banking services connected to the buying and selling of goods. Many of these early “protobanks” dealt primarily in coin and bullion, money changing and supplied foreign and domestic coins of the correct weight and fitness. Around the year 3300 B.C. the temple of Uruk owned the land it exploited, received offerings and deposits and granted loans to farmers and merchants of livestock and grain, probably the first bank in history.

The rulers of Egypt regulated the grain crops, then directed it, until finally land become the property of the monarch to be rented out. “There was a real omnipresence of the state… all prices were fixed by fiat at all levels. There was a whole army of inspectors. There was nothing but inventories, censuses of men and animals. In villages, where disgusted farmers ran away, those, who remained, were responsible for the absentees’ production.” Egypt collapsed economically and politically at the end of the third century BC. Few people were wealthy, but banking was widespread and used by many villagers, farmers, merchants and craftsmen, doing business through banks and making payments out of their deposits and bank accounts. The Ptolemies realized how profitable private banks were, and started the first government-run bank which would conduct business with the “prestige” of the state, hold custody of tax revenues and invest in its benefit. The main innovation of Egyptian banking was centralization: the government bank in Alexandria had branches in the most important towns and cities. It has outlived its founding dynasty and was preserved during Roman rule.

Solon, on taking office in Athens in 594 BC, instituted a partial debasement of the currency (there is some disagreement on this matter). For the next four centuries the drachma had an almost constant silver content (67 grains of fine silver until Alexander, 65 grains after) and became the standard coin of trade in Greece and in much of Asia and Europe. Even after the Roman conquest of Greece in roughly the 2nd century BC, the drachma continued to be minted and widely used. The Greek city-states were largely independent, though there was an awareness of Hellenic identity. Each city-state had its own coinage. There was an active trade in these currencies, and probably few laws limiting citizens of a given city-state to the use of their own money. Debasement of the currency either for state profit or for the accommodation of changes in the ratio was rare in Greek history (with the notable exception of Dionysius of Syracuse). On the contrary, there are cases of actually raising the standard of the coinage for the greater prestige which a coinage of high intrinsic value seemed to offer. In the sixth century B.C.,theEuboean unit was increased in a number of cities by about five grains, in emulation of an increase introduced by Pisistratus in Athens. Banking, bank fraud and even banking crises were very well known. After the revolt against Mithridates, a serious banking crisis in Ephesusfollowed. The banking industry received here its first express, historically-documented privilege, which established a ten-year deferment on the return of deposits.

From at least the 4th century B.C. the Roman government bought grain in times of shortage and resold it at a lower price. At 58 B.C. was the law changed: every citizen should become free wheat. To the surprise of the government, most farmers left the country to live in Rome without working. To deal with the increasing economical problems, the emperors gradually began to devalue their currency. The silver denarius, patterned after the Greek drachma, was introduced about 212 BC. Soon after, the prior copper coin (aes, or libra) began to be debased until, by the onset of the empire, its weight had been reduced from 1 pound (12 Roman ounces) to half an ounce.

By contrast the silver denarius and the gold aureus (introduced about 87 BC) suffered only minor debasement until the time of Nero (AD 54), when almost continuous tampering with the coinage began. The metal content of the gold and silver coins was reduced, while the proportion of alloy was increased to three-fourths or more of its weight. The prices have risen in response and reached unprecedented heights under Emperor Diocletian. The once silver denarius was by then a tin plated copper coin, silver and gold coins were no longer in circulation. Diocletian issued a new denarius from pure copper and instituted further reforms, to fix still rising prices and the wages of many workers. Death was the punishment for dealing at higher prices or hoarding, and much blood was shed before the law was finally ignored. A tax reform has bound the lower classes to the soil and made them effective serfs.

The silver currency was basically abandoned, so much that the government started to demand payment of taxes in kind and in services instead of coin. Constantine issued the golden solidus in large numbers (but taxes had to be paid in gold bullion, as the government had trouble knowing how debased its coinage was). But the inflation of lesser coins continued, even cities were free to make their own token coins. Most people had to buy gold coins to pay taxes with, those who couldn’t afford it lost their lands or became delinquents. So there was a relatively stable ‘gold standard’ used by the growing number of soldiers and civil servants, and an increasingly worthless currency for the rest of the citizenry. A rapid decline of their fortunes and personal freedoms followed. And so has debasement contributed to the collapse of the empire

 

1) According to the passage what happened during the time of Nero with regard to gold and silver coins and to their weight?

i. Almost continuous tampering with the coinage began.

ii. The metal content of the gold and silver coins was reduced,

iii. The proportion of alloy was increased to three-fourths or more of its weight

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) Only i

e) All the three

2) According to the passage in which of the following did the early “protobanks” deal?

i. in coin and bullion,

ii. money changing

iii. supplied foreign and domestic coins of the correct weight and fitness.

iv. currency notes and payment of taxes.

a) Only iii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) All except iv

3) According to the passage what were the steps taken by Emperor Diocletian through reforms?

i. Diocletian issued a new denarius from pure copper and instituted further reforms, to fix still rising prices and the wages of many workers.

ii. The once silver denarius was by then a tin plated copper coin, silver and gold coins were no longer in circulation.

iii. Death was the punishment for dealing at higher prices or hoarding, and much blood was shed before the law was finally ignored.

A tax reform has bound the lower classes to the soil and made them effective serf.

a) ii and iii

b) i and iv

c) iii and iv

d) i and ii

e) All of these

4) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

i. From at least the 4th century B.C. the Roman government bought grain in times of surplus and resold it at a lower price.

ii. The main innovation of Egyptian banking was centralization: the government bank in Alexandria had branches in the most important towns and cities.

iii. To deal with the increasing political problems, the emperors gradually began to devalue their currency.

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iii

d) Only ii

e) All are correct

5) According to the passage which of the following statements have been mentioned correct about Egypt and its banking system at that time?

i. Egypt collapsed culturally and socially at the end of the third century BC

ii. Few people were wealthy, but banking was widespread and used by many villagers, farmers, merchants and craftsmen, doing business through banks and making payments out of their deposits and bank accounts.

iii. The Ptolemies realized how profitable private banks were, and started the first government-run bank which would conduct business with the “prestige” of the state, hold custody of tax revenues and invest in its benefit.

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) Only iii

d) Only ii

e) None of these

6) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

i. Diocletian issued a new denarius from pure gold and instituted further reforms, to fix still rising prices and the wages of many workers.

ii. Death was the punishment for dealing at higher prices or hoarding, and much blood was shed before the law was finally ignored.

iii. A tax reform has bound the lower classes to the soil and made them effective serfs

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) Only i

e) None of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “fiat” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) degree

b) faint

c) decree

d) effect

e) stream

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “emulation” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) invasion

b) aberrant

c) imitation

d) peculiar

e) anomalous

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “intrinsic” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) inborn

b) inbred

c) indigenous

d) adventitious

e) natural

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “collapse” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) failure

b) distruption

c) latish

d) tardy

e) success

Directions (11-15): Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Below the sentence are five sets of words. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

11) For Mizoram’s newest party, the symbol has turned out to be symbolic. The People’s Representation for _____ and Status of Mizoram was elated to receive the diamond as the party symbol not just because of the _______ of its shape to the party’s abbreviated form, PRISM.

a) ideal- regard

b) equality- representation

c) identity-relevance

d) desire- elucidation

e) remark-report

12) A year ago the case for a second vote on EU membership looked like the _______ of a lost cause. At the general election in 2017 both major parties promised to “deliver Brexit”. The only party that wanted to hold another ______ the Liberal Democrats, got 8% of the vote.

a) definition-referendum

b) abbreviation-reference

c) leader-reform

d) resoluteness-effort

e) Distinction-promise

13) The next bout in the ______ between Italy and the European Union has begun and Italy’s deadline to resubmit its _____ plans to the European Commission, on November 13th, lapsed without its government budging.

a) fair-effective

b) fight-budget

c) lead-reform

d) unity-effortless

e) dignity-promise

14) Switzerland’s swissnex, with offices in the technology and _______ hubs of Boston, San Francisco, Rio de Janeiro, Shanghai and Bangalore, is managed by the country’s foreign ministry. It runs on a public-private _______ and funding model that links research and science and technology education to 20 S&T offices and counselors in its embassies.

a) examination-unity

b) assertiveness-identity

c) leading-sector

d) innovation- collaboration

e) engineering-concern

15) Today there is a _______ chance that Britain will end up having a vote on whether to accept the Brexit deal that Theresa May presented to the cabinet on November 14th. Over the past few months the no-hopers have _______ up a succession of impressive victories.

a) definition-reference

b) aggravation-run

c) leading-reformed

d) solution-resolved

e) significant–racked

Direction (16-20): In the following questions two columns are given containing three sentences/phrases each. In first column, sentences/phrases are A, B and C and in the second column the sentences/phrases are D, E and F. A sentence/phrase from the first column may or may not connect with another sentence/phrase from the second column to make a grammatically and contextually correct sentence. Each question has five options, four of which display the sequence(s) in which the sentences/phrases can be joined to form a grammatically and contextually correct sentence. If none of the options given forms a correct sentence after combination, mark (e), i.e. “None of these” as your answer.

16)

a) A-E

b) C-D

c) A-E & B-F

d) A-F, B-D

e) None of these

17)

a) A-E

b) C-D

c) A-E & B-F

d) A-F, B-D

e) None of these

18)

a) A-F & C-E

b) C-D

c) A-E & B-F

d) A-F, B-D

e) None of these

19)

a) A-E

b) C-D

c) A-E & B-F

d) B-D

e) None of these

20)

a) A-E

b) C-D

c) A-E & B-F

d) B-D

e) None of these

Directions (21-30): There is a sentence given below which is divided into four or five parts. There is an error in any part(s) of the sentence. From the given options, find out the part which contain(s) error.

21) At the 2016 Olympics from Rio de Janeiro, Irish  star (A) / Michael Conlan’s expletive –laden take down of the judging standards (B) / after a controversial semi-final loss(C) /  become a catalyst for then AIBA administration (D) /  to launch an inquiry and admit lapses. (E)

a) Only A and C

b) Only B and C

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and E

22) In America a child in a low-income family (A) / who moves from a neighbourhood (B) / with less social mobility then average, (C) / to one in the same county that have more mobility than average, (D) / can expect to earn $200,000 more over their lifetime. (E)

a) Only A and C

b) Only B and E

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and D

23) Though socially liberal, Adam Schiff, a 58-year-old former federal prosecutor, (A) / are a fiscally sensible moderate with national-security chops. (B) / He is also, despite being the likely next chairman (C) / on the House intelligence committee, (D) / hardly anyone’s idea of box office. (E) /

a) Only A and C

b) Only B and C

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and E

24) “It was the end of the era in which(A) /  Austria only see itself as a victim of Hitler’s aggression,” (B) / says Georg Hoffmann, a curator at the House of Austrian History (C) /, the new museum, which occupies a set on rooms (D) /  in Vienna’s imperial Hofburg palace. (E) /

a) Only A and C

b) Only B and C

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and E

25) A tenth of the economy is make up of industries (A) / in which four firms control more than two-thirds of the market (B) / and in a healthy economy you would expect profits to be competed down, (C) / but the free cash-flow on companies (D) / is 76% above its 50-year average, relative to GDP. (E)

a) Only A and C

b) Only B and C

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and E

26) When RBI challenged it, it was taking to the Supreme Court, (A) / which said, “All your objections against non-disclosure (B) /  of willful defaulters is not correct, not legal; (C) /  give the information” and the SC said this on 2015 (D) / and it was supposed to be implemented by all these institutions. (E)

a) Only A and C

b) Only B and C

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and E

27) LopetiSenituli, political advisor with Tongan Prime Minister “AkilisiPhiva, (A) /  told Reuters by email on Sunday(B) /  that Tonga had signed (C) / a Belt and Road memorandum of  understanding, and that (D) / the concessional loan had been deferred with five years. (E)

a) Only A and E

b) Only B and C

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and E

28) “The withdrawal of general consent means CBI officers lose (A) / police powers under Criminal Procedure Code in the State (B) /concerned and of  registering a case,” said a CBI official (C) / and however, the CBI could continue to register new cases in other states, (D) / having links to the one in which the general consent has been rescinding.  (E)

a) Only A and C

b) Only B and C

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and E

29) In 1961, the Supreme Court in the Major E.G.Barsay judgment (A), / hold that Section 6 was incorporated in the DSPE. Act (B), / “only with maintain the federal structure of the nation” (C), /and the subject of “law and order” is the domain (D), / of the State government under Schedule 7 of the Constitution. (E)

a) Only A and C

b) Only B and C

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and E

30) The kingdom has also allowed women to enter (A), /sports stadiums, previously a male –only arena (B), / and was pushing for greater participation (C), /of women in the workforce as it seeks (D), /of diversity its oil-dependent economy. (E), /

a) Only A and C

b) Only B and C

c) Only A and D

d) Only B and D

e) Only C and E

Answers:

Directions (1-10):

1) Answer: e)

It is mentioned in the last but one para – By contrast the silver denarius and the gold aureus (introduced about 87 BC) suffered only minor debasement until the time of Nero (AD 54), when almost continuous tampering with the coinage began. The metal content of the gold and silver coins was reduced, while the proportion of alloy was increased to three-fourths or more of its weight.

2) Answer: e)

It is mentioned in para 1- Many of these early “protobanks” dealt primarily in coin and bullion, money changing and supplied foreign and domestic coins of the correct weight and fitness.

3) Answer: e)

It is mentioned in the last but one para – The once silver denarius was by then a tin plated copper coin, silver and gold coins were no longer in circulation. Diocletian issued a new denarius from pure copper and instituted further reforms, to fix still rising prices and the wages of many workers. Death as the punishment for dealing at higher prices or hoarding, and much blood was shed before the law was finally ignored. A tax reform has bound the lower classes to the soil and made them effective serf.

4) Answer: d)

It is mentioned in para 2 &4-

The main innovation of Egyptian banking was centralization: the government bank in Alexandria had branches in the most important towns and cities.

From at least the 4th century B.C. the Roman government bought grain in times of shortage and resold it at a lower price….. To deal with the increasing economical problems, the emperors gradually began to devalue their currency.

5) Answer: b)

It is clearly mentioned in para 2- Egypt collapsed economically and politically at the end of the third century BC

ii) Few people were wealthy, but banking was widespread and used by many villagers, farmers, merchants and craftsmen, doing business through banks and making payments out of their deposits and bank accounts.

iii) The Ptolemies realized how profitable private banks were, and started the first government-run bank which would conduct business with the “prestige” of the state, hold custody of tax revenues and invest in its benefit.

6) Answer: d)

It is clearly mentioned in the last but one para: Diocletian issued a new denarius from pure copper and instituted further reforms, to fix still rising prices and the wages of many workers. Death was the punishment for dealing at higher prices or hoarding, and much blood was shed before the law was finally ignored. A tax reform has bound the lower classes to the soil and made them effective serfs

7) Answer: c)

The meaning of word ‘fiat’ is “a formal authorization or proposition; a decree. / an arbitrary order’.

8) Answer: c)

The meaning of emulation is effort to match or surpass a person or achievement, typically by imitation.

9) Answer: d)

The meaning of word “intrinsic” is belonging to the essential nature or constitution of a thing / originating or due to causes within a body, organ, or part

10) Answer: e)

The meaning of word collapse is catastrophe / crash / destruction

Directions (11-15):

11) Answer: c)

The meaning of “identity” is “the fact of being who or what a person or thing is /sameness /oneness” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “relevance” is “the quality or state of being closely connected or appropriate” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12) Answer: a)

The meaning of “definition” is “a statement of the exact meaning of a word, especially in a dictionary” / the degree of distinctness in outline of an object, image, or sound “and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “referendum is “a general vote by the electorate on a single political question which has been referred to them for a direct decision.” so it is appropriate for ii blank

13) Answer: b)

The meaning of “fight” is “struggle to overcome, eliminate, or prevent” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “budget” is “an estimate of income and expenditure for a set period of time” so it is appropriate for ii blank

14) Answer: d)

The meaning of “innovation” is “a new method, idea, product, etc” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “collaboration “the action of working with someone to produce something “and so it is appropriate for ii blank

15) Answer: e)

The meaning of “significant” is “sufficiently great or important to be worthy of attention; noteworthy “/ having a particular meaning indicative of something”. and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “racked is “cause extreme pain, anguish, or distress to.” so it is appropriate for ii blank

Directions (16-20):

16) Answer: d)

Veteran journalist and Hindu publishing group chairman N Ram was presented with the prestigious Raja Ram Mohan Roy Award for his outstanding contribution to journalism

The first ID electric car is due to roll off the production line in Zwickau in 2019, as the plant ramps up to a production capacity of 330,000 electric vehicles

17) Answer: c)

Under the Conservative system, a confidence vote is triggered when 15% of Tory MPs. send letters of no confidence to the chair of the 1922 Committee, which represents Conservative MPs in parliament.

The head of the largest political party is asked by the Queen to form a government; however they ended up in that position

18) Answer: a)

More than a decade after the Supreme Court laid down guidelines in 2007 for making appointments in the lower judiciary within a set time frame, a similar issue is back before the highest court.

Indian currency continued its upward rising streak for the seventh straight day by rising 45 paise to 71.01 in late afternoon trade against the American currency (intra-day) at the interbank forex market

19) Answer: b)

At least 63 people have been confirmed dead so far in the Camp Fire, which erupted a week ago in the drought-parched Sierra foothills 175 miles (280 km) north of San Francisco and now ranks as one of the most lethal single U.S. wildfires since the turn of the last century

20) Answer: d)

Withdrawing from a Cold War-era nuclear weapons treaty with Russia as President Donald Trump has announced he plans to do is a dangerous step, Russia’s deputy foreign minister warned on Sunday.

Directions (21-30):

21) Answer: c)

Error in part A: replace “from” with “in” for correct preposition.

Error in part D: replace “become” with “became” as it is used in the past tense

22) Answer: e)

Error in part C: replace “then” with “than” – for comparative degree

Error in part D: replace “have” with “has” as the subject (the county) is third person singular in the present tense.

23) Answer: d)

Error in part B: replace “are” with “is” as the subject is third person singular

Error in part D: replace “on” with “of” as it is used to indicate preposition of possession

24) Answer: d)

Error in part B: replace “see” with “saw” as the sentence is in the past tense

Error in part D: replace “on” with “of” as it is used to indicate belonging or a possessive relationship

25) Answer: c)

Error in part A: replace “make” with “made” as the sentence is in the passive voice

Error in part D: replace “on” with “of” as it is used to indicate belonging or a possessive relationship

26) Answer: c)

Error in part A: replace “taking” with “taken” as it is used in the passive voice

Error in part D: replace “on” with “in” as it is used as a function word to indicate inclusion, location, or position within limits.

27) Answer: a)

Error in part A: replace “with” with “to” as it is used as a function word to indicate relative position

Error in part E: replace “with” with “for” as it is used as a function word to indicate duration of time or extent of space.

28) Answer: e)

Error in part C: replace “of” with “for” as the preposition is used as a function word to indicate purpose

Error in part E: replace “rescinding” with “rescinded” as it is used to indicate the passive voice

29) Answer: b)

Error in part B: replace “hold” with “held” as it is used to indicate past tense

Error in part C: replace “with” with “to” as it is used to indicate infinitive verb (to maintain)

30) Answer: e)

Error in part C: replace “was” with “is” as the sentence is based on present, so present continuous verb form will be used.

Error in part E: replace “of” with “to” as it is used as a function word to indicate purpose, intention, tendency, result, or end

/ 5. Reviews