IBPS Clerk 2018 Sectional Revision Test- 2 | English Language

Dear Readers, Take Free English Language Sectional Test of 30 Questions as like in the real exam to analyze your preparation level. Our Sectional Test Questions are taken as per the latest exam pattern and so it will be really useful for you to crack the prelims exam lucratively. Students who are weak in English Language should utilize this chance constructively to accomplish a successful profession in Banking Field.

Sectional Revision Test- 2 | English Language

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Direction (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

A city can be defined as ‘smart’ when investments in human and social capital and traditional and modern communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory action and engagement. It’s unlikely to surprise many that Asia has been named in a recent study as the global smart city leader of the future. The study, a white paper titled Evolution of Smart Cities and Connected Communities has singled out Asia as a future leader in smart city initiatives. Two key factors in smart city growth, according to the paper, are increasing populations and ongoing global urbanization. With more and more people choosing the urban life, there’s a greater need for the efficiency that smart city projects afford- think London and New York’s congestion-reducing public transport initiatives. India on its development pathway faces a similar urban challenge. According to the 2011 census, about 32 per cent of the country’s population lives in urban areas as against 28 per cent in 2001 and 17 per cent in 1991. Projections of Census of India 2011 data suggested that urban population was about to grow at the pace of 2.83 per cent from 340 million in 2008 to 590 million in 2030, living in at least 60 cities with a population of more than one million. By 2039, most estimates consider India to be 50 per cent urbanized. To keep pace with that, India would have to spend $1.2 trillion in its urban areas. While, worldwide there is a call to battle global challenges like climate change, poverty, inequality and sporadic development in developing societies through transformative sustainability, innovation and low-carbon societies, there is a smoldering pressure from Indian urbanites for enhanced economic growth, job creation,  systems  efficiency,  urban  renewal,  municipal  reform  and international living standards. Hence, with the recent announcement of 100 new smart cities, Government of India has strategically responded to both the international and the domestic audience. With development reaching an increasingly large number of people, the pace of migration from rural areas to cities is increasing. The Union Urban Development Minister clarified that, ‘Smart Cities’ should bring quality of life with inclusivity”. The Minister talking on future urban development plans further suggested that there could be two different schemes, one for renewal of 500 urban habitations and the other for Smart Cities. This as we know, has now materialized into the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation and Smart Cities Mission respectively Smart cities concept was born in 2008, when IBM introduced this concept as a part of its Smarter Planet Initiative.

There are some successful smart cities in other countries such as Amsterdam, Barcelona & Stockholm etc. It is expected that in India, by 2050, 70% of the population lives in cities. But the present cities are not capable to accommodate the growing migrants. 500 new cities are needed by then according to futurologists. To address this challenge, Govt of India launched ‘Smart cities Mission’ in 2015. 98 cities were selected under this project. And these cities will be developed as smart cities in 5 years duration. In the first stage, 20 cities were selected for the financial year 2015-16. For the next two years, 40 and 38 cities respectively will be included in the mission. In the west, a smart city is more IT focused. But here, in India, smart city is the one that promises essential needs like clean water, electricity, sustainable environment, affordable housing etc with the integration of IT services. The smart cities in India are being designed to drive economic growth and also to give a decent quality of life to the citizens. The approx budget for this mission is 1 lakh crore rupees. Center will provide 48,000 crores in the next five years and respective state governments will provide another 48,000 crores. On top of this, investments will be provided through Public-Private Partnership model. There are several pros associated with the mission such as; the main aim of constructing a smart city is to provide good infrastructure to the residents, such as water and sanitation services, 24*7 electricity supply. Smart cities are required as it would also provide smart solutions such as providing public data, electronic service delivery, 100% treatment of water waste, monitoring water quality etc. Smart cities enhance the developmental activities of a region. A lot of developmental activities such as building schools, organizations, shopping malls can take place. These activities benefit everybody including citizens, businesses, government and environment. The main aim of a smart city is “housing for all”. Due to the rising urbanization, a better standard of living is required. To support this rising shift, a sustainable model of housing should be developed. A smart city is an economy of agglomeration. It provides various opportunities and advantages to its residents. India is expanding rapidly and the emergence of smart city can provide employment for many.

Many opportunities will be created not just to IT people but to many. So this can reduce the unemployment to some extent. This can solve the problem of slums and the growing need for accommodation in cities. Smart cities are going to be more citizen-centric. This will be a good step towards bottom-up approach in governance. Smart initiates will reduce the cost of infrastructure, thereby making the housing cheaper and affordable. Improved transport system will have a great effect on economy. Though the capital amount is huge, the benefits can recover the investment in future. In practice, the Smart Cities challenge in India not only seeks technological leapfrogging but a giant leap of faith. Unlike smart phones and smart card technology, smart cities could neither be imported nor transplanted, they probably need to be adapted to the local context and assessed for their value to urban sustainability. This poses numerous intervening issues as discussed here: Smart cities initiative will develop the already developed cities but not the poor villages. Instead of looking at solutions to accommodate the migrants from rural areas, it’s better to look at the solutions to increase the employment opportunities at villages. Huge investment may make the life in smart cities more costly and unaffordable to many. Gated communities may develop there, which makes it a rich people zone. This can encourage slums. As everything is integrated with technology, there will be a big data collection, putting privacy at risk.

1) According to the passage what are the various merits of smart city mission in India?

i. It will promote development and also enhance the developmental activities of a region.

ii. Housing for All is the main aim of a smart city as due to the rising urbanization, a better standard of living is required.

iii. Advanced communication techniques are used to send guidance data to the network.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) Only i

e) None of these

2) According to the passage what are the major factors in smart city growth?

a) increasing populations

b) sustainability of growth

c) Ongoing global urbanization.

d) Inclusiveness in technology

e) Both a) and c)

3) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

i. It is estimated that India to be 50 per cent urbanized by 2030

ii. Smart cities would provide smart solutions such as providing public data, electronic service delivery, 100% treatment of water waste etc

iii. As per 2011 census, about 32% of the country’s population lives in urban areas as against 28% in 2001

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iii

d) Only iii

e) All are correct

4) According to the passage what are the disadvantages associated with the smart cities?

i. As there will be huge investment hence it will make the life in smart cities more costly and unaffordable.

ii. Due to over-reliance digitalization will make us vulnerable to cyber-attacks.

iii. The initiative aims to develop the already developed cities but not the poor villages.

a) Only iii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

5) Which of the following has been mentioned correct as per the Projections of Census of India 2011 data?

a) The urban population to grow at the pace of 2.83% from 340 million in 2008 to 590 million in 2030

b) More than one million population will live in cities by 2025

c) Due to increased urbanization India would have to spend $1.2 trillion in its urban areas.

d) 98 cities were selected under the project of Smart cities Mission

e) None of these

6) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

a) Smart cities concept was introduced by IBM as a part of its Smarter Planet Initiative.

b) The budget of smart cities mission is approximately two lakh crore rupees.

c) Twenty cities were selected for the financial year 2015-16 in the first stage of the mission

d) The government suggested that there could be two different schemes in order to fulfill the urban development initiative, one will be Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation and other will be Smart Cities Mission

e) None of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “smoldering” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Recessing

b) Congealing

c) Glaciating

d) Festering

e) Suspending

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “intervening” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Meddling

b) Reconciling

c) Evacuating

d) Interceding

e) Obtruding

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “agglomeration” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Aggregation

b) Diffusion

c) Assemblage

d) Congeries

e) Amassment

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “accommodate” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Debilitate

b) Attune

c) Integrate

d) Accord

e) Accustom

Direction (11-15) – In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a), b), c), d). Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences

11) Worn out

i. My jeans are almost worn out because I’ve worn them so much.

ii. The steps have been worn out in places.

iii. I’ve been working all night and I’m worn out.

iv. I’ve worn a hole out the elbow of my jacket

a) ii and iv

b) i and ii

c) iii and iv

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

12) Skip through

i. We skipped through on the lecture and went to a movie instead.

ii. I skipped through the book, just looking atthe pictures.

iii. Ted skipped through the report, not bothering to read it.

iv. I thought he should have skipped through long ago.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) ii and iii

d) i and iv

e) All are correct

13) Catch out

i. He asked her casual questions to see if he could catch her out.

ii. That new drama series is beginning to catch out.

iii. He did not like to be caught out on details

iv. The government has been caught out by the speed of events.

a) ii and iii

b) i and iv

c) iii and iv

d) All except ii

e) All are correct

14) Fold into

i. He folded the paper into a little bird.

ii. Wally can fold a sheet of paper into an airplane that flies.

iii. The cloth folded into, revealing the faded upholstery below.

iv. She folded into the page to mark her place in the book.

a) iii and iv

b) i and ii

c) ii and iv

d) All except iii

e) All are correct

15) Clear out

i. My landlord’s given me a week to clear out of my flat.

ii. I vowed to clear out to him until my dying day.

iii. Her landlord gave her a week to clear out of her apartment.

iv. You will have to clear this expenditure out the main office

a) ii and iv

b) i and iii

c) iii and iv

d) i and ii

e) All are correct

Direction (16-20): In a passage given below there are five blanks,  Every blank has four alternative words given in options (a), (b), (c) and (d). You have to tell which pair of word will best suit to the respective blank.

The winding caravan of more than 7,000 migrants from Central America through Mexico has become such a political hot potato that it is likely to thrust the immigration issue. Already, President Donald Trump, who has not been shy about translating his conservative views on immigration into harsh policy measures, has fuelled fears that the caravan may harbour terrorists from West Asia; he has also attacked Mexico for not stopping the onslaught. This, besides the usual sloganeering around illegal immigration that will ___________ (16)________ steal American jobs and threaten the security of an otherwise peaceful American society. In truth, most members of this caravan, not by any means the first of its kind but certainly one of the largest in recent history, are either economic migrants seeking escape from grinding poverty in places like Honduras or ____________ (17)_______ persecution, trafficking or gang violence in the region. Unlike previous such caravans, whose members numbered in the hundreds and which _____________ (18)_______ along the way or upon reaching the border, this one has gathered momentum from sheer media attention and support from advocacy groups. Democrats are wary of committing too much political currency to the caravan or undocumented migration as a phenomenon, given the _____________ (19)_____ mood in the country. And the Republican mainstream harbours concerns about the ____________ (20)_______ anti-immigrant rhetoric against the caravan, and what it stands for, emboldening far-right groups associated with racism and Islamophobia.

16). ?

a) Allegedly/purportedly

b) Supposedly/certainly

c) Genuinely/unlikely

d) Earnestly/apparently

e) None of these

17). ? 

a) Extending/prolonging

b) Lingering/progressing

c) Sustaining/vanishing

d) Evading/fleeing

e) None of these

18). ?

a) Hoarded/depleted

b) Dissipated/ dispelled

c) Collocated/accrued

d) Procured/scattered

e) None of these

19). ?

a) Squandering/ suffering

b) Overruling/draining

c) Prevailing/abounding

d) Forfeiting/defaulting

e) None of these

20). ?

a) Strident/blatant

b) Pliable/comfy

c) Jarring/flowing

d) Tender/lenient

e) None of these

Directions (21-25): Choose one of the words from the given options which makes sentence incorrect such that it changes the whole meaning of the sentence 

21)  Immediate a) investments in decentralised sludge management systems would bring twin benefits; of improving b) the environment and reducing c) the disease burden imposed d) by insanitary conditions.

a) C-diminishing

b) D-precluded

c) B-revamping

d) A-rapid

e) None of these

22)  The government had suggested a) that it took the first step earlier this week to defuse b) tensions arising c) from the feud d) between the two top officers of the agency

a) A-Advocated

b) C-ensuing

c) B-abridge

d) D-dispute

e) None of these

23)  The governments are bound a) to compare b) notes on the way forward, especially on building c) and financing alternatives d) to China’s Belt and Road projects for countries along the Asia-Africa growth corridor.

a) B-juxtapose

b) A-confined

c) C-invigorating

d) D-devoirs

e) None of these

24)  The court’s interim order thus goes beyond calming a) the air; it works as a safeguard b) against any further damage to the institution’s reputation and credibility c) during the pendency d) of the case

a) C-plausibility

b) D-suspense

c) B-jeopardy

d) A-asserting

e) None of these

25)  The problem of the waste not being contained a), collected without manual labour, transported b) and treated c) safely is becoming graver d).

a) A-excluded

b) C-served

c) D-engraved

d) B-conducted

e) None of these

Directions (26-30): In which of the following given sentences the usage of the given word is correct.

26)  Ablution

a) Doctors are required to perform an ablution before they examine each patient

b) Some religions require believers to perform an ablution before prayer

c) Once I have my cup of coffee and do my morning ablution, I’m ready to start my day.

d) Dedicated practitioners of yoga swear by a bedtime ablution ritual to relax the body

e) All are correct

27) Frugal

a) In case you think I was frugal, take a look at the map.

b) He offended several people with his frugal remarks.

c) Their frugal behaviour is going to get them into trouble someday.

d) Fran is a frugal person because she spends endless hours clipping coupons

e) All are correct

28) Gruff

a) Although the old man pretends to be gruff, he is really warm and kind

b) Turn that dreadful wailing music off and put on something gruff.

c) She presents such a gruff front that you’d never guess she’s ill.

d) He was a gruff man with a kind word for everybody.

e) All are correct

29) Rehash

a) I rehash to eat at a place where the cooks do not wear hairnets and gloves

b) The judge refused to rehash the details of what happened and simply stuck to the original facts.

c) The inmate can rehash questioning, as it is his right to speak with counsel first.

d) The sorcerer offered the maiden a tempting deal that she couldn’t rehash

e) All are correct

30) Untenable

a) High petrol taxes are untenable on ecological grounds.

b) He’s presenting a plan that is morally untenable and politically realistic.

c) The mayor’s proposal is untenable and will not gain the support of the city council.

d) A city built on an island is easily untenable.

e) All are correct

Answers With Explanation:

1)  Answer: b)

It is mentioned in para 2- Smart cities enhance the developmental activities of a region. A lot of developmental activities such as building schools, organizations, shopping malls can take place. The main aim of a smart city is “housing for all”. Due to the rising urbanization, a better standard of living is required.

2) Answer: e)

It is mentioned in para 1- Two key factors in smart city growth, according to the paper, are increasing populations and ongoing global urbanization.

3) Answer: d)

It is mentioned in para 1&2- According to the 2011 census, about 32 per cent of the country’s population lives in urban areas as against 28 per cent in 2001 and 17 per cent in 1991.

4) Answer: e)

It is mentioned in para 3- In practice, the Smart Cities challenge in India not only seeks technological leapfrogging but a giant leap of faith. This poses numerous intervening issues as discussed here: Smart cities initiative will develop the already developed cities but not the poor villages. Instead of looking at solutions to accommodate the migrants from rural areas, it’s better to look at the solutions to increase the employment opportunities at villages. Huge investment may make the life in smart cities more costly and unaffordable to many.

5) Answer: a)

It is mentioned in para 1-Projections of Census of India 2011 data suggested that urban population was about to grow at the pace of 2.83 per cent from 340 million in 2008 to 590 million in 2030, living in at least 60 cities with a population of more than one million

6) Answer: b)

It is mentioned in para 1&2- The Minister talking on future urban development plans further suggested that there could be two different schemes, one for renewal of 500 urban habitations and the other for Smart Cities. This as we know, has now materialized into the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation and Smart Cities Mission respectively Smart cities concept was born in 2008, when IBM introduced this concept as a part of its Smarter Planet Initiative. In the first stage, 20 cities were selected for the financial year 2015-16. For the next two years, 40 and 38 cities respectively will be included. The approx budget for this mission is 1 lakh crore rupees.

7) Answer: d)

The meaning of word smoldering is to erupt or churn

8) Answer: c)

The meaning of word intervening is to prevent or alter a result or course of events.

9) Answer: b)

The meaning of word agglomeration is a mass or collection of thing

10) Answer: a)

The meaning of word accommodate is to assist or aid

11) Answer: d)

The meaning of “worn out” is something that can no longer be used because it is so old or extremely tired and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences

12) Answer: c)

The meaning of “skip through” is to go through a book or a stack of papers without dealing with every page and the phrase has been applied properly in ii and iii sentences

13)  Answer: d)

The meaning of “catch out” is to cause them to make a mistake that reveals that they are lying about something and the phrase has been applied properly in i, iii and iv sentences

14) Answer: b)

The meaning of “fold into” is to make an object by folding something, such as paper or cloth and the phrase has been applied properly in i and ii sentences

15)  Answer: b)

The meaning of “clear out” is to become free or to leave a place, usually quickly and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences

16)  Answer: a)

The meaning of “purportedly” is “as appears or is stated to be true”. Hence, both allegedly and purportedly are correct.

17)  Answer: d)

The meaning of “fleeing” is “run away to escape”. Hence, both evading and fleeing are correct

18)  Answer: b)

The meaning of “dissipated” is “to disappear or cause to disappear”. Hence, both dissipated and dispelled are correct

19)  Answer: c)

The meaning of “prevailing” is “be prevalent or usual”. Hence, both prevailing and abounding are correct

20)  Answer: a)

The meaning of “strident” is “loud and harsh”. Hence, both strident and blatant are correct

21)  Answer: b)

D-precluded which means to inhibit

22)  Answer: c)

B-abridge which means to reduce

23)  Answer: d)

D-devoirs which means necessities

24)  Answer: c)

B-jeopardy which means danger

25)  Answer: a)

A-excluded which means to eliminate

26) Answer: e)

The meaning of ablution is the act of washing or cleansing

27)  Answer: d)

The meaning of frugal is careful in spending money

28) Answer: a)

The meaning of gruff is severe in tone or manner

29)  Answer: b)

The meaning of rehash is to go over something again

30) Answer: c)

The meaning of untenable is not capable of being supported or maintained

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