“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI PO 2018 Day-138

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI PO 2018 (Day-138)

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Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

Poverty is humiliation, the sense of being dependent on them, and of being forced to accept rudeness, insults, and indifference when we seek help. In the simplest term, poverty may be defined as a social condition where individuals do not have financial means to meet the most basic standards of life that is acceptable by the society. Poverty also staves people off from accessing much needed social tools of well-being like education and health requirements. The direct consequences stemming from this problem are hunger, malnutrition and susceptibility to diseases which have been identified as major problems across the world. The term poverty is interconnected with the notion of the poverty line/ threshold that may be defined as the minimum figure of income that is required in a particular country for maintaining the socially acceptable quality of life in terms of nutritional, clothing and sheltering needs. The World Bank has updated its international poverty line figures to 1.90 USD per day on October 2015 from 1.5 USD as a response to the changes in the cost of living across the world as per current economy. The organization estimates that “Just over 900 million people globally lived under this line in 2012 and we project that in 2015, just over 700 million are living in extreme poverty. Poverty is a worldwide cause of concern even in economically stable countries like the USA. Current statistics state that over half the populations in the world, about 3 billion people, are forced to live on less than 2.5 dollars per day. In India, as per 2014 government reports, monthly per capita consumption expenditure is Rs. 972 per person in rural areas and Rs. 1407 per person in urban areas. This data is currently being accepted as the poverty threshold of the country. As of 2015, 21.9% of the total population lives below the national poverty threshold, as per the data of Asian Development Bank, that’s a whopping 269.7 million individuals not having enough money.

Factors contributing to the persistent problem of poverty in the country are many and they need to be identified in order to be addressed properly. The main factor that contributes to poverty-ridden state of the country from a demographical point of view is the problem of over population. The growth of population in the country has so far exceeded the growth in economy and the gross result is that the poverty figures have remained more or less consistent. Population growth spurt also leads to generation of unemployment and that means diluting out of wages for jobs further lowering income. Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. But outdated farming practices, lack of proper irrigation infrastructure and even lack of formal knowledge of crop handling has affected the productivity in this sector tremendously. As a consequence there is redundancy and sometimes complete lack of work leading to decreased wages that is insufficient for meeting daily needs of a labourer’s family plunging them into poverty. In India it is said that 80% wealth in the country is controlled by just 20% of the population. Another major economic factor that is causative of poverty in the country is the rising unemployment rate. Unemployment rates is high in India and according to a 2015 survey data, at the all-India level, 77% of families do not have a regular source of income. The term Inflation may be defined as an increase in prices of commodities coinciding with the fall in the purchasing value of money. As a direct consequence of inflation, effective price of food, clothing items as well as real estate rises. The salaries and wages do not rise as much in keeping up with the inflated prices of commodities leading to effective decrease of the per capita income. The Liberalization-Privatization-Globalization attempts initiated by the Indian Government in 1991 were directed towards making the economy more suited to international market-trends to invite foreign investments. Not having enough resources to feed their children, the poor consider education to be frivolous, preferring children to start contributing to the family’s income rather than draining them. On the other hand, lack of education and illiteracy prevent individuals from getting better paying jobs and they get stuck at jobs offering minimum wages. Improvement of quality of life gets hindered and the cycle once again comes into action. Social customs like the caste system cause segregation and marginalization of certain sections of the society. Certain castes are considered untouchables still and are not employed by upper caste, leaving very specific and low paying jobs that they can live off. Lack of adequate vocational training makes the huge labour force available in India largely unskilled, which is unsuitable for offering maximum economic value. Lack of education, much less higher education, is also a contributing factor towards this.

The weak status attached with women, deep-rooted social marginalization and long embedded perceptions of domesticity renders about 50% of the country’s population unable to work. Despite considerable efforts from the government in the forms of various schemes to mollify the poverty situation, allegedly only 30-35% actually reaches the beneficiaries due to wide-spread practices of corruption in the country. The resounding effect of poverty echoes through various layers of an India citizen’s life. One of the most devastating effects that poverty has is on the overall health of the nation. The most prominent health issue stemming from poverty is malnutrition. The problem of malnutrition is widespread in all age-groups of the country but children are most adversely affected by this. Limited income in larger families leads to lack of access to sufficient nutritious food for their children. These children over time suffer from severe health problems like low body weight, mental, physical disabilities and a general poor state of immunity making them susceptible to diseases. Malnutrition is a gross contributor of infant mortality in the country and 38 out of every 1,000 babies born in India die before their first birthday. Malnutrition among adult also leads to poor health in adults that leaches their capacity for manual labour leading to a decrease in income due to weakness and diseases. Incidence of violence and crime have been found to be geographically coincident. In a backdrop of unemployment and marginalization, the poor resort to criminal activities to earn money. Coupled with lack of education and properly formed moral conscience, a poverty ridden society is more susceptible to violence by its people against its own people from a sense of deep-seated discontent and rage.

One of the hallmarks of a poverty-ridden society is the widespread practices of exploitation and the worst of it comes in the form of child labour. Large families fail to meet the monetary needs of the members and children as young as 5 years are made to start earning in order to contribute to the family income. Poverty is a direct index indicating success of the economy of the country. The number of people living under the poverty threshold indicates whether the economy is powerful enough to generate adequate jobs and amenities for its people. Schemes providing subsidies for the poor of the country again impose a drain on the economy. The measures that should be taken to eradicate poverty in India such as, Growth of population at the current rate should be checked by implementation of policies and awareness promoting birth control. All efforts should be made to increase the employment opportunities in the country, either by inviting more foreign investments or by encouraging self-employment schemes. Measures should be taken to bridge the immense gap that remains in distribution in wealth among different levels of the society. Primary needs of people for attaining a satisfactory quality of life like food items, clean drinking water should be available more readily. Improvement of the Subsidy rates on commodities and Public Distribution system should be made. Free high school education and an increased number of functioning health centers should be provided by the government.

1) According to the passage which of the following statements are mentioned as a factors contributing to the persistent problem of poverty in the country?

i.The problem of over population

ii.Poor Agricultural Infrastructure

iii. Lack of unskilled labour

a) ii and iii

b) i and iii

c) i and ii

d) Only i

e) None of these

2) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

i.As per the 2015 survey data 67% of families do not have a regular source of income.

ii.According to the data of Asian Development Bank, 21.9% of the total population lives below the national poverty outset

iii. The rising unemployment rate is a major economic factor that is responsible for poverty in the country

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iii

d) Only ii

e) None of these

3) According to the passage which of the following given statements are mentioned as an effects of poverty in the country?

i.Malnutrition is a major resounding effect and health related issue rising from poverty, limited income in larger families leads to lack of access to sufficient nutritious food for their children

ii.Poverty prevent individuals from getting better paying jobs, as a result they get stuck at jobs offering minimum wages

iii. Children are made to start earning in order to contribute to the family income because large families fail to meet the needs of the members, hence resulting in child labour

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) Only i

d) i and iii

e) None of these

4) According to the passage which of the following statements have been mentioned correct about the data released by World Bank?

i.According to the world bank the gender inequality renders about 50% of the country’s population unable to work

ii.As per the data international poverty line figures to 1.90 USD per day

iii. It estimated that over 700 million are living in extreme poverty.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) Only ii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

5) According to the passage which of the following statements are mentioned as a solution to fight the demon of poverty in India?

i.Efforts should be made to increase the employment opportunities in the country

ii.Population growth at the current rate should be checked by implementation of policies

iii. Steps should be taken to improve the Subsidy rates on commodities and Public Distribution system

a) i and iii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) Only ii

e) All of these

6) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

i.Malnutrition is a main contributor of infant mortality and forty out of every thousand babies born in India die early.

ii.Inflation may be defined as an increase in prices of commodities coexisting with the fall in the purchasing value of money

iii. The Liberalization-Privatization-Globalization initiated by the Government were assisted towards making the economy fitted to international market-trends to invite foreign investments.

a) i and ii

b) Only iii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “plunging” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Ascend

b) Plummet

c) Evacuate

d) Sprout

e) Mount

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “spurt” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Commotion

b) Pacifism

c) Concord

d) Truce

e) Neutrality

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “mollify” in bold as used in the passage.

a) Propitiate

b) Assuage

c) Tranquilize

d) Agitate

e) Abate

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “frivolous” in bold as used in the passage.

a) Niggling

b) Whimsical

c) Solemn

d) Puerile

e) Barmy

Directions (11-15): Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Below the sentence are five sets of words. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole

11) Since the external environment has _________with threats of trade wars growing by the day and also a _______ up of oil prices, we may see a downward revision in the IMF’s projections in the revised edition.

a) Adulterated, unfixing

b) Elevated, inflating

c) Deteriorated, firming

d) Corroded, rendering

e) Recuperated, propping

12) Bankers will be able to justify accepting large haircuts as long as they get a better deal than what they would get under liquidation, thus far, the courts have _______ the attempts of ________ interests to stall the process.

a) Contended, entrench

b) Resisted, vested

c) Abided, alienable

d) Refrained, expurgated

e) Endured, abridged

13) The coexistence of poverty as widespread destitution and _________as concentrated obscenity is moral and political grotesquery that _____ ill for the prospects of our country’s continued democratic functioning.

a) Opulence, forebode

b) Fortune, presage

c) Plethora, refutes

d) Affluence, bodes

e) Profusion, suppresses

14) The adoption of the Metro in Bengaluru has been ________ by inadequate parking facilities, this shows that an integrated approach to transport, backed by studies on _________ patterns is crucial to resolving the transport woes in Indian cities.

a) Fettered, mitigated

b) Impeded, commuting

c) Discomfited, modified

d) Expedited, attenuating

e) Restrained, intensifying

15) There is a positive attempt in the draft legislation to ______out degree mills and dubious training institutions, with a ______ for prosecution and imprisonment of management officials who defy the higher Education Commission of India.

a) Weed, provision

b) Obliterate, purveying

c) Expunge, foundations

d) Ratify, accouterment

e) Extirpate, procurements

Directions (16-20): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a), b), c), d). Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences

16) Get above

i.Once you get above all this, the answer should become clear.

ii.Get above this guy, he’s driving too slowly.

iii. The temperature is likely to not get above -4C, but it will feel a lot colder.

iv.We need to get above of this scandal before it breaks to the public.

a) i and iii

b) iii and iv

c) i and ii

d) ii and iv

e) All are correct

17) Fold up

i.Riya folded up the page to mark her place in the book.

ii.Please don’t try to fold cheap merchandise up on me.

iii. Our shop finally folded up because of the recession

iv.The producer decided to fold up the play early. It was losing money.

a) iii and iv

b) i and ii

c) iii and ii

d) All except iv

e) All are correct

18) Scrape by

i.Mary scraped by the cart that was blocking the crowded hallway.

ii.We can’t scrape by with only that amount of money.

iii. The student just scraped by with a D average.

iv.The player scraped by the third round with a narrow victory.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) ii and iii

d) All except i

e) All are correct

19) Let up

i.The rain let up, so we went outside and played.

ii.After the contest was over, Jane let up a bit so she could relax.

iii. Let up on the new workers; they’re doing the best they can.

iv.If you let your hair up, I can braid it.

a) i and iii

b) iii and iv

c) i and ii

d) ii and iv

e) All are correct

20) Spring on

i.The company president sprang on us the plan to lay people off.

ii.The taxpayers’ anger springs on policies that were made by the governor.

iii. Let me tell you about the trick I sprang on Sally

iv.Please don’t spring any other demands on me.

a) iii and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and iv

d) All except ii

e) All are correct

Answers:

Directions (1-10):

1.Correct Answer is: c)

It is mentioned in para 2- The main factor that contributes to poverty-ridden state of the country from a demographical point of view is the problem of over population, outdated farming practices, lack of proper irrigation infrastructure and even lack of formal knowledge of crop handling has affected the productivity, as a consequence there is complete lack of work leading to decreased wages that is insufficient for meeting daily needs of a labourer’s family plunging them into poverty

2.Correct Answer is: a)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1&2- Another major economic factor that is causative of poverty in the country is the rising unemployment rate. Unemployment rates is high in India and according to a 2015 survey data, at the all-India level, 77% of families do not have a regular source of income. As of 2015, 21.9% of the total population lives below the national poverty threshold, as per the data of Asian Development Bank.

3.Correct Answer is: d)

It is mentioned in para 3-The most prominent health issue stemming from poverty is malnutrition. Limited income in larger families leads to lack of access to sufficient nutritious food for their children. One of the hallmarks of a poverty-ridden society is the widespread practices of exploitation and the worst of it comes in the form of child labour.

4.Correct Answer is: a)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1- The World Bank has updated its international poverty line figures to 1.90 USD per day on October 2015 from 1.5 USD as a response to the changes in the cost of living across the world as per current economy. The organization estimates that “Just over 900 million people globally lived under this line in 2012 and we project that in 2015, just over 700 million are living in extreme poverty.

5.Correct Answer is: e)

It is mentioned in para 3- Growth of population at the current rate should be checked by implementation of policies and awareness promoting birth control. All efforts should be made to increase the employment opportunities in the country, either by inviting more foreign investments or by encouraging self-employment schemes. Improvement of the Subsidy rates on commodities and Public Distribution system should be made

6.Correct Answer is: c)

It is mentioned in para 2-The term Inflation may be defined as an increase in prices of commodities coinciding with the fall in the purchasing value of money. As a direct consequence of inflation, effective price of food, clothing items as well as real estate rises, The Liberalization-Privatization-Globalization attempts initiated by the Indian Government in 1991 were directed towards making the economy more suited to international market-trends to invite foreign investments.

7.Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of plunging is to drop or fall fast

8.Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of spurt is a sudden burst or increase of activity or speed.

9.Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of mollify is to ease or mitigate something

10.Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of frivolous is not having any serious purpose or value.

Directions (11-15):

11.Correct Answer is: c)

 The meaning of “deteriorated” is “to become progressively worse” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “firming” is “to be fixed or make resistant to change” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12.Correct Answer is: b)

 The meaning of “resisted” is “to prevent or keep out” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “vested” is “absolute or fixed” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

13.Correct Answer is: d)

 The meaning of “affluence” is “resources or prosperity” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “bodes” is “to predict or point to” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

14.Correct Answer is: b)

 The meaning of “impeded” is “to prevent someone or something by obstructing them” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “commuting” is “travel to and fro” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

15.Correct Answer is: a)

 The meaning of “weed out” is “to remove or abolish” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “provision” is “the action of providing or supplying something for use” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

Directions (16-20):

16.Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “get above” is “to come to a position above or to assume an attitude towards something so that one is no longer concerned with its problem and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences.

17.Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “fold up” is “to put an end to something or to cease operating and the phrase has been applied properly in iii and iv sentences.

18.Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “scrape by” is “to succeed just barely in passing some obstacle or to manage just to get by” and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences.

19.Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “let up” is “to release or diminish the pressure or to come to a stop and the phrase has been   applied properly in i and iii sentences.

20.Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “spring on” is “to pull a trick or to present or disclose something to someone unexpectedly” and the phrase has been applied properly in i, iii and iv sentences.

 

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