“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI PO 2018 Day-148

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI PO 2018 (Day-148)

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Direction (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

The proliferation of technology, cheap smartphones, and reasonable data rates has enabled the democratization of online content. The flip side is that the speed of content distribution has made traditional journalistic controls of verification unfeasible. Recent incidents in India are indicative of potential harm, ranging from political misinformation to a spate of lynching. The government’s attempt at regulating fake news by suspending journalistic accreditation was a spectacular failure. Journalists viewed the circular as stifling the press and it was recalled. Germany has compelled social media companies to remove content that violates provisions of its criminal code, encouraging erring on the side of censorship. A proposed French law gives judges emergency powers to take down fake news during sensitive periods. Judges are required to order a takedown within 48 hours too short a span to determine what is “fakeAs the incident of withdrawal of the fake news circular indicates, the free speech implications at hand demand a cautionary approach. A preliminary issue is the difficulty in defining fake news. While misinformation spread through social media has captured public attention, fake news itself is an amorphous category, including misleading news, unverified content, hoaxes, and even fabricated pictures in the nature of internet memes. The assessment may involve distinguishing mere poor journalism from deliberate attempts to spread misinformation.

Any top-down regulation that defines fake news simply as containing falsehood may be setting itself up for failure. It is likely that such regulation would be vague and over-broad, thereby not providing effective guidance for law enforcement or compliance. This has been the case with Malaysia’s Anti-Fake News Act, 2018, which defines fake news as news, information, data and reports which is or are wholly or partly false or in any other form capable of suggesting words or ideas. Pre-censorship of news and information, while being virtually impossible due to the speed of content creation, will also violate the guarantee of free speech under Article 19(1) (a) of the Constitution. On the one hand, such legislation could divest individuals of autonomy. On the other, it could bolster the power of the government to censor opinions it is uncomfortable with. Any screening in the context of social media applications such as WhatsApp could also violate the fundamental right to privacy recognized by the Supreme Court. Furthermore, technologies like end-to-end encryption in messaging apps would pose a significant challenge to pre-censorship efforts. Therefore, a cautionary approach warrants avoiding overarching regulation in the form of anti-fake news legislation, irrespective of the benignity of its motivations. Entrusting a judge, the state or companies like Facebook with the task of making an evaluation of veracity will facilitate judicial, government or private censorship. It is easy for such regulation to fall into the trap of assuming the existence of a single and verifiable version of the truth. Apart from cases of patent and absolute falsehood, the line between truth and untruth may be difficult to draw

News is generally a mix of facts and opinions that are not amenable to neat segregation. To expose news gatherers to imprisonment and hefty penalties in the quest for such truth is misguided. Even the law only imposes a standard of beyond reasonable doubt, and not actual truth, for reaching a determination of guilt in criminal cases. In light of the above, we are proposing a decentralized three-point agenda to address fake news. The first prong is to ensure critical media literacy, with critical digital literacy as a component. This would focus on encouraging individuals to learn the skills required to navigate the internet and question the content they are exposed to. Users should understand the limitations of digital media. The second prong is to nurture a general culture of scepticism among citizens towards information. Good practices, such as verifying the source of the news and corroboration with related news, ought to be advanced in schools and through public education campaigns. The role of the district administration and local community leaders is key in this regard. Lastly, in a limited set of situations, such as when there is threat to life or national security, targeted and proportionate legal interventions can be explored. They should account for existing speech offences to avoid overlap.

Implementation of the above three prongs will not only be a sustainable response to fake news, but will also strike the necessary balance with free speech considerations. There are certain measures to control this. Make sure you know exactly who provided the information for the reports you’re reading. Establish where the information came from before trusting what it says. If there’s no citation, don’t share. Once something newsworthy happens, there will be multiple outlets on the ground covering the event. Read as many reports from reliable sources as possible to find the consistent, irrefutable facts. If there are only a few accounts available that might mean that other news sources are working to confirm the facts before publishing. Headlines aren’t written to tell the whole story, especially in the midst of a complicated situation where every fact might not be clear. Sketchy outlets might even share reports with misleading headlines to drive clicks, even if they don’t accurately describe the facts or completely understand the situation. If you’re reading something that calls an event the “biggest,” “most,” or “deadliest,” double check those claims with a quick search. If a reporter or source uses all-caps or uses explicit language in reporting, you probably shouldn’t be counting on them to be completely factually correct. Falling for fake images or videos that look like they were taken on the scene is all too easy. You can combat hoaxers before you share out a doctored or outdated pic by searching Google to see if it has been used elsewhere. That could prevent you from sharing Hurricane Sharkfor the millionth time after the next big storm. Don’t give them any reason to doubt you, and it’ll be even easier for you to avoid spreading any false information.

1) According to the passage for what motives Germany has enforced social media companies?

a) To Encourage erring on the side of censorship

b) To deal with harm that may be similar to those posed by fake news.

c) To remove content that violates provisions of its criminal code.

d) a) and c)

e) None of these

2) According to the passage which of the following statements are mentioned as a solutions to stop spreading of fake news?

i) Compare multiple reports to find the facts

ii) Check pictures using Google image search

iii) Share the news just based on headlines

a) i and iii

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) Only i

e) None of these

3) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

i) Malaysia’s Anti-Fake News Act, 2018 defines fake news information which is or are wholly or partly false or in any other form capable of suggesting words.

ii) Pre-censorship of news and information will violate the guarantee of free speech under Article 19(1) (a) of the Constitution.

iii) Screening in the context of social media application could also violate the fundamental right to privacy.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) Only i

e) All are correct

4) According to the passage what are different forms in which fake news is being spread through social media?

a) Unverified content

b) Fabricated pictures in the nature of internet memes.

c) Headlines with a source

d) a) and b)

e) None of these

5) According to the passage which of the following statements are mentioned as a decentralized solution to address fake news?

i) To assure critical media literacy with critical digital literacy as a component.

ii) To foster a general culture of mistrust among citizens towards information.

iii) To share the source and facts regarding news

a) i and ii

b) Only iii

c) i and iii

d) Only ii

e) None of these

6) According to the passage what is the purpose of ensuring critical media literacy with critical digital literacy?

i) To urge individuals to learn the skills required to handle the internet

ii) To persuade individuals to question the content they are unveiled to.

iii) To let individuals account for existing speech offences to avoid overlap.

a) i and iii

b) ii and iii

c) Only i

d) All except iii

e) None of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “bolster” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Terminate

b) Buttress

c) Congest

d) Barricade

e) Obscure

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “stifling” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Confined

b) Liberated

c) Floating

d) Slackened

e) Sloppy

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “veracity” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Precision

b) Truism

c) Integrity

d) Probity

e) Treachery

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “amenable” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Complaisant

b) Docile

c) Obligated

d) Capricious

e) Accountable

 Direction (11-15): In each of the questions given below a sentence is given which is then divided into five parts out of which one bold part is correct. There are no errors in three out of four remaining parts and therefore only one of the parts other than the bold one is incorrect. You must choose the grammatically incorrect part as your answer. Choose e if you find out there is no error.

11) The government had promised a non-adversarial tax a)/ regime when it came to power and took steps to b)/reduce tax disputes relating to cross-border transactions c)/within large corporate groups, who d)/had seen an increase in previous years e)/

a) d

b) c

c) e

d) b

e) No error

12) Time is running out to reach an exit agreement a)/by the self-imposed October deadline and b)/Theresa May’s plan has nothing new about c)/the critical issue that’s hold up progress avoiding d)/customs checks at the border with Ireland e)/

a) c

b) e

c) d

d) a

e) No error

13) A committee of international experts formed by the a)/government to minimise the possibility of grid failure recommended b)/the implementation of a solution along the country c)/to measure the dynamic state of the grid and detect d)/the onset of few any unstable oscillation event e)/

a) b

b) c

c) d

d) a

e) No error

14) Crucially, in a move that could anger a)/Brexiteers, if there’s a dispute in the interpretation b)/of EU rules that the UK has agreed to c)/adhere to, the European Court of d)/Justice could have the final say e)/

a) d

b) c

c) b

d) a

e) No error

15) The ministry may effectively save the thousand a)/crores of rupees it is giving on grant for b)/infrastructure development and bring in fiscal c)/accountability between institutions, as most d)/of these loans will be paid back by institutions e)/

a) c

b) d

c) e

d) b

e) No error

Direction (16-20): Choose the set of word for each blank that best fits sentence and are grammatically correct.

16) When the new loan is _________ the client is allowed to suspend repayment for a few years, with interest _________this keeps the net present value of their asset constant while postponing the day of reckoning.

a) Dissipating, garnering

b) Exhausted, accumulating

c) Invigorated, amassing

d) Devouring, compiling

e) Replenished, procuring

17) If those who directly _________income from the new inventions choose to consume more services that are hard to ________ the net result could be the coexistence of rapid technological progress and slow growth.

a) Mounts, operate

b) Enlarged, imbrute

c) Cumulates, barbarize

d) Disperse, equip

e) Accrue, automate

18) It may not just be loan waivers that are detrimental to the government balance sheet; it is the fiscal volatility __________ from random policy shocks that can have an even more _________ impact.

a) Emanating, enduring

b) Disgorging, persisted

c) Exuding, prevailed

d) Radiating, halting

e) Egressing, lingered

19) Merkel offered enough to allow Macron to ________ his humiliation, in front of an ecstatic press, they _________ the decision to create a eurozone budget, when in reality it is nothing more than a credit line from the European Stability Mechanism

a) Obfuscate, accost

b) Disguise, hailed

c) Simulate, dribbled

d) Pretend, disparaged

e) Muffle, address

20) In India, an/a ___________ majority of start-ups have focused on the upper layers of the socio-economic pyramid, but now the big opportunity is among households which have just started experiencing the feel of __________ spends.

a) Inundated, elective

b) Profuse, facultative

c) Overwhelming, discretionary

d) Divulging, frivolous

e) Illuming, volitional

Answers:

1). Answer: d)

It is mentioned in para 1- Germany has compelled social media companies to remove content that violates provisions of its criminal code, encouraging erring on the side of censorship.

2). Answer: c)

It is mentioned in para 3- Once something newsworthy happens, there will be multiple outlets on the ground covering the event. Read as many reports from reliable sources as possible to find the consistent, irrefutable facts. You can combat hoaxers before you share out a doctored or outdated pic by searching Google to see if it has been used elsewhere.

3). Answer: e)

It is clearly mentioned in para 2- This has been the case with Malaysia’s Anti-Fake News Act, 2018, which defines fake news as news, information, data and reports which is or are wholly or partly false or in any other form capable of suggesting words or ideas. Pre-censorship of news and information, while being virtually impossible due to the speed of content creation, will also violate the guarantee of free speech under Article 19(1) (a) of the Constitution. Any screening in the context of social media applications such as WhatsApp could also violate the fundamental right to privacy recognized by the Supreme Court.

4). Answer: d)

It is mentioned in para 1- While misinformation spread through social media has captured public attention, fake news itself is an amorphous category, including misleading news, unverified content, hoaxes, and even fabricated pictures in the nature of internet memes.

5). Answer: a)

It is mentioned in para 3- In light of the above, we are proposing a decentralized three-point agenda to address fake news. The first prong is to ensure critical media literacy, with critical digital literacy as a component. This would focus on encouraging individuals to learn the skills required to navigate the internet and question the content they are expos. The second prong is to nurture a general culture of scepticism among citizens towards information.

6). Answer: d)

It is mentioned in para 3- The first prong is to ensure critical media literacy, with critical digital literacy as a component. This would focus on encouraging individuals to learn the skills required to navigate the internet and question the content they are exposed to.

7). Answer: b)

The meaning of word bolster is to give a boost to something/ to support

8). Answer: a)

The meaning of word stifling is making one feel constrained or oppressed.

9). Answer: e)

The meaning of word veracity is conformity to facts/accuracy

10). Answer: d)

The meaning of word amenable is answerable or responsible

Direction (11-15)

11). Answer: a)

In part d in place of who it should be which

12). Answer: c)

In part d in place of hold it should be holding

13). Answer: b)

In part c in place of along it should be across

14). Answer: c)

In part b in place of in it should be over

15). Answer: b)

In part d in place of between it should be among

Direction (16-20)

16). Answer: b)

The meaning of “exhausted” is to use up resources or reserves completely” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “accumulating” is “to gather together or acquire” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

17). Answer: e)

The meaning of “accrue” is to accumulate or receive (payments or benefits) over time” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “automate” is “to mechanize” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

18). Answer: a)

The meaning of “emanating” is to originate from or be produced by” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “enduring” is “to remain in existence” so it is appropriate for ii blank

19). Answer: b)

The meaning of “disguise” is to misrepresent” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “hailed” is “to speak to or greet” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

20). Answer: c)

The meaning of “overwhelming” is very great in amount” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “discretionary” is “open to choice or optional” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

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