“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI PO 2018 Day-164

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI PO 2018 (Day-164)

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Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

The ongoing farmers agitation has taken on a shockingly violent form. This is why the government needs to step in to buy from farmers at a minimum support price, while subsidising consumers so that they get affordable food. This is what we have done over the last fifty years after setting up the Food Corporation of India in 1965. While there is no doubt we need to create more jobs in manufacturing, we must not forget that even in the year 2050, according to the latest projections, there will still be 800 million people living in rural India. And just one look at the state of Indian cities makes it clear that endlessly moving people from villages to cities could actually deepen the urban imbroglio. The problem with Indian agriculture is that we are still stuck with the so-called Green Revolution of the 1970s. Yes, there was a dramatic rise in food production. But this was primarily a rice and wheat revolution. It completely neglected two-thirds of Indian agriculture and crops grown and eaten by the poorest people of our country pulses and millets. There is also nothing green about this revolution because, over the years, it has caused a deep crisis of sustainability, economic and ecological. Large-scale use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides has had an extremely adverse impact on our soil and water. Deep drilling by tubewells to grow these water-intensive crops has happened without any reference whatsoever to India’s unique hydrogeology, where nearly two-thirds of our land is underlain by hard rock formations which have very low rates of natural recharge. This has meant that there is now a serious water crisis, with both water tables and water quality falling rapidly. We have arsenic, fluoride, mercury, even uranium in our drinking water, creating serious health issues. What is worse, to get the same increase in production, farmers have had to apply more and more fertilisers and pesticides over time. This dramatically raises costs of cultivation, without a proportionate increase in production. More than 3,00,000 farmers have committed suicide over the last two decades, which has absolutely no precedent in Indian history.

First, we need to transition to a more ecologically resilient agriculture. This becomes even more urgent in the context of climate change. Large-scale evidence now exists that non-chemical agriculture has become a profitable alternative. As farmers reduce their dependence on synthetic fertilisers and pesticides, they slowly emerge from the ecological vicious cycle and are also able to dramatically reduce their costs of cultivation, without compromising on production. The government has launched the Soil Health Card Scheme, which potentially enables farmers to more carefully manage input regimes. The government must announce a comprehensive package to give a green direction to the nature of subsidies in the sector. Second, we must radically reform the management of both surface and groundwater to ensure that the water in our irrigation commands reaches the farmers for whom it is meant and groundwater is managed sustainably in a way that ensures that no one is deprived of their right to water for life. There is positive movement in both these directions within government except for some hesitation in going ahead with a new model groundwater Bill drafted by the Ministry of Water Resources. This landmark Bill seeks to replace archaic British Common Law from the 19th century, which has provided legal legitimacy to the over-extraction of groundwater that underpins the current agrarian crisis.

Third, we require continued diversification to other forms of livelihood, such as livestock and fisheries, among the fastest-growing segments of the rural economy, which could be hurt by recent policy changes. We must also shift focus away from water-intensive rice and wheat. This means radical changes in the way we grow these crops but also much greater encouragement to millets and pulses, which are nutritionally far superior alternatives in a country beset with the diabetes epidemic. The key change required here is aggressive and extensive procurement of these crops by the government. FCI procurement focusses only on rice and wheat although this year we saw some initial steps in the direction of procurement of pulses. This is a welcome move but needs to go much further. The best way would be to include millets and pulses in the massive anganwadi and mid-day meal programmes. Fourth, investments in agro-processing infrastructure are urgently required that would enable farmers to move up the value chain. We cannot continue to have them dumping their vegetables and milk on the road. They should be processed before they are sold and farmers must get their due share in the value chain. Fifth, we need to ensure access to credit and crop insurance, especially to our 85% small and marginal farmers. Farm loan waivers destroy the integrity of the banking system and potentially undermine the extraordinary anti-poverty initiative led by Self-Help Groups of women across the country. So many of these extremely poor women, with more than 97% loan recovery ratios, have helped the banking system survive in remote rural India. All this great work of providing an alternative to the usurious moneylender-traders is threatened by loan waivers. Finally, we need strong Farmer Producer Organisations, to overcome massive handicaps faced by isolated farmers and enable them to really benefit from market participation. While many cumulative factors have taken a toll on farmers over decades, more proximate factors explain the outbreak of extreme violence. Speaking to farmers and traders, it appears that demonetisation squeezed so much liquidity out of the system that traders did not have requisite cash to buy the farmers’ produce.

1) According to the passage which of the following statement has/have been clearly mentioned about Soil Health Card Scheme?

  1. The vision of the scheme is to extend the coverage of irrigation
  2. The scheme enables farmers to more carefully manage input regimes
  3.  The scheme ensures integrated development of Rain fed areas

a) Only ii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) All except iii

e) None of these

2) Which of the following statements has been mentioned correct about Food Corporation of India?

  1. FCI took up the activities to promote protein production through techniques like dairy farming etc
  2. FCI acquisition focusses only on rice and wheat but this time some steps were taken in the direction of attainment of pulses
  3. Food Corporation of India was set up in 1965

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iii

d) All except ii

e) None of these

3) According to the passage which of the following given methods are mentioned correct regarding the improvement in the farming?

  1. There is need to ensure access to credit and crop insurance
  2. There is need to incentivize the States to provide additional resources above their baseline expenditure in order to bridge critical gaps.
  3. There is need to transition to a more ecologically resilient agriculture urgently in the context of climate change.
  4. There is a need of continued diversification to other forms of livelihood, such as livestock and fisheries.

a) ii and iii

b) i and iii

c) i and iv

d) All except ii

e) None of these

4) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. A new model groundwater Bill drafted by the Ministry of Water Resources which seeks to replace archaic British Common Law from the 20th century
  2. According to the latest figures released there will still be 800 million people living in rural India even in 2050
  3. There is a significant water crisis, with water tables and water quality descending speedily

a) i and iii

b) Only i

c) i and ii

d) ii and iii

e) None of these

5) According to the passage which of the following given objectives are clearly mentioned regarding the management of surface and groundwater?

  1. It ensures that the water in our irrigation commands reaches the farmers
  2. It aims to manage groundwater which will ensure that no one is deprived of their right to water for life.
  3.  It aims to reduce the costs of cultivation, without compromising on production.

a) Only ii

b) i and iii

c) i and ii

d) ii and iii

e) All are correct

6) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. The presence of arsenic, fluoride, mercury and uranium in our drinking water is creating serious health issues.
  2. Investing in agro-processing infrastructure is fundamental requirement as it would enable farmers to move up the value chain
  3. The best way for extensive procurement for pulses and millets would be to include them in the massive anganwadi and mid-day meal programmes

a) All except ii

b) i and iii

c) ii and iii

d) i and ii

e) All are correct

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “imbroglio” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Tranquility

b) Predicament

c) Affinity

d) Accordance

e) Compliance

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “resilient” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Effervescent

b) Adamant

c) Intractable

d) Obstinate

e) Rigorous

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “requisite” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Indispensable

b) Stipulation

c) Desideratum

d) Extraneous

e) Imperative

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “usurious” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Prehensile

b) Extorting

c) Benevolent

d) Covetous

e) Acquisitive

Directions (11-15): Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Below the sentence are five sets of words. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

11) Exactly how to ______ such rules is a matter of ongoing debate in France, President Emmanuel Macron has argued for the need to be less rigid, and likes to remind the French that the 1905 law was passed also to ________ the right to religious practice.

a) Construed, preserve

b) Interpret, enshrine

c) Improvise, sanctified

d) Delineate, desecrate

e) Portray, exalted

12) Developing countries such as India have an economic structure different from the developed ones of the West for which inflation targeting was first ________ an aspect of this is that agricultural production is subject to _________.

a) Concoct, variation

b) Fabricated, motions

c) Contrive, disparities

d) Devised, fluctuation

e) Formulate, transgressions

13) During the sectarian troubles of 1968-98, the Irish border was for much of the time heavily ________ people and goods crossing the 500km frontier were stopped for customs and identity checks, as British army helicopters ________ overhead.

a) Reinforce, grumbled

b) Consolidated, reverberate

c) Fortified, whirred

d) Entrench, thunder

e) Dissuaded, ruffled

14) The French government ruled that refusal _______ to a failure to _________ which it is entitled to do under a provision in French law and therefore denied her French citizenship.

a) Aggregated, imbibed

b) Amounted, assimilate

c) Correspond, incorporate

d) Signified, envisaged

e) Extended, depart

15) Security measures were phased out following the Good Friday peace agreement of 1998, and the EU’s single market and customs union have _______ the need for ________ of imports and exports between the two countries.

a) Eradicate, inquest

b) Incorporated, probes

c) Relegate, surveillance

d) Dislodged, inventory

e) Banished, inspections

Directions (16-20): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a), b), c), d) Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences

16) Bring forth

  1. Our speech brought forth enthusiastic applause.
  2. I hope they bring forth taxes.
  3.  I won’t buy it till they bring forth the price
  4. The announcement of the rate hike brought forth many complaints from consumers.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iv

d) ii and iv

e) All are correct

17) Step back

  1. I stepped back from the edge of the cliff.
  2. The transformer steps the power back from 110 volts to 24 volts.
  3.  The police officer told the crowd to step back.
  4. Everyone step back and give him a bit of space

a) iii and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and iv

d) All except ii

e) All are correct

18) Carry away

  1. There’s far too much food I’m afraid I got a bit carried away.
  2. He carries away a business as a grocer.
  3. The crowd were carried away by his passionate speech.
  4. That passengers can carry away them on board a plane

a) i and iii

b) iii and iv

c) i and ii

d) ii and iv

e) All are correct

19) Swear in

  1. I could see that Shahid admired her for being able to swear in public
  2. The judge swore in Alice as the new director.
  3. The Chief Justice will swear the new President in.
  4. The new mayor will be sworn in tomorrow.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) ii and iii

d) All except i

e) All are correct

20) Meet with

  1. I think our performance will meet with to your expectations
  2. I hope my new car will meet with to the demands required
  3. Henry always feared meeting with a horrible fate.
  4. The proposal met with unexpected opposition.

a) iii and iv

b) i and ii

c) ii and ii

d) All except iv

e) All are correct

Answers:

Direction (1-5)

1) Answer: a)

It is mentioned in para 2 – The government has launched the Soil Health Card Scheme, which potentially enables farmers to more carefully manage input regimes.

2) Answer: b)

It is mentioned in para 1&3- This is what we have done over the last fifty years after setting up the Food Corporation of India in 1965, FCI procurement focusses only on rice and wheat although this year we saw some initial steps in the direction of procurement of pulses.

3) Answer: d)

It is mentioned in para 2&3- we need to transition to a more ecologically resilient agriculture. This becomes even more urgent in the context of climate change. We need to ensure access to credit and crop insurance, we require continued diversification to other forms of livelihood, such as livestock and fisheries, among the fastest-growing segments of the rural economy, which could be hurt by recent policy changes.

4) Answer: b)

It is mentioned in para 1&2- There is positive movement in both these directions within government except for some hesitation in going ahead with a new model groundwater Bill drafted by the Ministry of Water Resources. This landmark Bill seeks to replace archaic British Common Law from the 19th century, we must not forget that even in the year 2050, according to the latest projections, there will still be 800 million people living in rural India, This has meant that there is now a serious water crisis, with both water tables and water quality falling rapidly

5) Answer: c)

It is mentioned in para 2- Second, we must radically reform the management of both surface and groundwater to ensure that the water in our irrigation commands reaches the farmers for whom it is meant and groundwater is managed sustainably in a way that ensures that no one is deprived of their right to water for life.

6) Answer: e)

It is mentioned in para 1&2- We have arsenic, fluoride, mercury, even uranium in our drinking water, creating serious health issues. Fourth, investments in agro-processing infrastructure are urgently required that would enable farmers to move up the value chain. The best way would be to include millets and pulses in the massive anganwadi and mid-day meal programmes.

7) Answer: b)

The meaning of word imbroglio is an extremely confused or complicated situation.

8) Answer: a)

The meaning of word resilient is able to withstand or recover quickly from difficult conditions.

9) Answer: d)

The meaning of word requisite is something made necessary by particular circumstances or regulations.

10) Answer: c)

The meaning of word usurious is greedy or desirous

Direction (11-15)

11) Answer:  b)

The meaning of “interpret” is “explain the meaning of (information or actions)” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “enshrine” is “preserve a right or idea in a form that ensures it will be protected and respected” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12) Answer:  d)

The meaning of “devised” is “plan or invent a system or mechanism by careful thought” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “fluctuation” is “an irregular rising and falling in number or amount” so it is appropriate for ii blank

13) Answer:  c)

The meaning of “fortified” is “provide a place with defensive works as protection against attack or to protect a place” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “whirred” “is make a low and regular sound of something rapidly rotating or moving to and fro” so it is appropriate for ii blank

14) Answer:  b)

The meaning of “amounted” is “be the equivalent of or develop into” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “assimilate” to understand or grasp” so it is appropriate for ii blank

15) Answer:  e)

The meaning of “banished” is “get rid of something unwanted” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “inspections” analysis or review of something” so it is appropriate for ii blank

Direction (16-20)

16) Answer: c)

The meaning of “bring forth” is to “cause something to happen” and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iv sentences.

17) Answer: d)

The meaning of “step back” is “to stop doing something or being actively involved in something for a time” and the phrase has been applied properly in i, iii and iv sentences.

18) Answer: a)

The meaning of “carry away” is “to become so excited about something” and the phrase has been   applied properly in i and iii sentences.

19) Answer: e)

The meaning of “swear in” is “to administer a legal or official oath to someone or to commit something” and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences.

20) Answer: a)

The meaning of “set off” is “to give rise to something or to cause something to explode” and the phrase has been applied properly in iii and iv sentences.

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Topic Daily Publishing Time
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Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
General Awareness “20-20” 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
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Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM

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