“20-20” English Question | Crack RBI Grade B 2018 Day-172

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack RBI Grade B 2018 (Day-172)

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Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

Plastic, the wonder material that we use for everything and which pollutes our environment, is perhaps the most harmful of trash dumped by mariners and sea-goers in sea because it does not readily break down in nature. According to the Centre for Marine Conservation, over 25,000 pieces of fishing line were collected from U.S. beaches during the 1996 annual beach clean-up and at least 40% of all animal entanglements reported during the clean-ups involved fishing line. India hosted this year’s World Environment Day and Prime Minister made a high-profile pledge, to international acclaim, that it would do away with all single-use plastics by 2022. Worldwide, the problem has got out of hand, with only 9% of about nine billion tonnes of plastic produced getting recycled. India has an uninspiring record when it comes to handling waste. Quite simply, if the Centre and the States had got down to dealing with the existing regulations on plastic waste management and municipal solid waste, a ban would not even have become necessary. To address the global concern that the bulk of India’s plastic waste estimated officially at 26,000 tonnes a day is being dumped in the oceans, there has to be an effort on a war footing to segregate it at source. The Urban Development Secretary in each State, who heads the monitoring committee under the rules, should be mandated to produce a monthly report on how much plastic waste is collected, including details of the types of chemicals involved, and the disposal methods. Such compulsory disclosure norms will maintain public pressure on the authorities, including the State Pollution Control Boards. But, as the UN Environment Programme notes, their wild popularity has turned them into a scourge. In the middle stage, it is very flexible and can be given any shape depending on temperature and pressure. In practices, urea, formaldehyde, poly ethylene, polystyrene, polycithylcholide, phenoloic compounds and other substances are used in the preparation of plastics pollution. Now-a-days the most popular plastic pollution is caused is polyvinyl chloride. When any food material or blood is stored in the said plastic containers then gradually the soluble chemical gets dissolved in them causing death due to cancer and other skin diseases. Recently U.S.A. has banned the use of P.V.C. plastic in space apparatus and in food containers. India should immediately ban the use of P.V.C. in water pipes, food and medicine containers to save the lives of millions who are already suffering from different types of ailments.

Plastics are used because these are easy and cheap to make and they can last a long time. Unfortunately these very useful qualities make plastic a huge pollution problem. Because the plastic is cheap it gets discarded easily and its persistence in the environment can do great harm. Urbanization has added to the plastic pollution in concentrated form in cities. Plastic thrown on land can enter the drainage lines and choke them resulting into floods in local areas in cities as was experienced in Mumbai, India in 1998. A recent study of blue petrel chicks on South Africa’s remote Marine Island showed that 90% of chicks examined had plastic in their stomachs apparently fed to them accidentally by their parents. Since the development of plastic earlier this century, it has become a popular material used in a wide variety of ways. Today plastic is used to make, or wrap around, many of the items we buy or use. The problem arises when we no longer want these items and we have to dispose off them, particularly the throwaway plastic material used in packaging. Plastic does not decompose, and requires high energy ultraviolet light to break down, the amount of plastic waste in our oceans is steadily increasing. This plastic can affect marine wildlife in two important ways; by entangling creatures, and by being swallowed. Over 260 species, including invertebrates, turtles, fish, seabirds and mammals, have been reported to ingest or become entangled in plastic debris, resulting in impaired movement and feeding, reduced reproductive output, lacerations, ulcers, and finally death. When ingested, such small particles can also be carried from the gut into other body tissues. Ingestion of plastic can lead to wounds; impairment of feeding capacity; blockage of digestive tract followed by satiation and starvation; and general debilitation often leading to death. Plasticizers and organic contaminants they typically sorb and concentrate on plastics at levels far superior to the surrounding marine environment have been shown to affect both development and reproduction in a wide range of marine organisms.

And one of the worst environmental effects of plastic bags is that they are non-biodegradable. The decomposition of plastic bags takes about 1000 years. The quality of the air we breathe, the water we drink or bath on, and the earth in which we grow our food has an immense effect on our health. A recent US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention Study found that about 93 percent of the US population has bisphenol A, a chemical that can be found in canned goods and in hard, clear plastic items in their body. Endocrine disruptors are ubiquitous in our environment and have deep impact on our health. Endocrine distruptor chemicals are added to plastic products to make them softer and easier to handle. These EDCs are common in our environment and, when absorbed by human beings and wildlife, mimic the action of hormones and have been linked to reproductive problems in animals and human beings are known to affect fat cells. Bisphenol A, an endocrine disruptor is a key monomer in production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins. Thin plastics are thrown anywhere and everywhere causing the following environmental degradation problems. It blocks the open sewage system and results in stagnation of sewage paving way for the mosquitoes which leads to the spread of various diseases, Plastic dumped on the soil prevents water percolation into the water table, It affects the very structure of soil, Water stagnating on the plastics strewn on the land becomes a breeding ground for mosquitoes which, in turn, produce diseases, Burning of plastics results in release of toxins in the atmosphere which, in turn, causes dreadly Cancer. Here are some steps that we can take to reverse the tide of toxic, non-biodegradable pollution so that it may not overtake our planet. Put produce in paper, canvas, and other healthy-fiber bags, Use wax paper bags, Use only glass bottles or cans, Support recycling schemes and promote support for one in your local area, Practice and promote paper disposal of plastics in your home and at the beach. Always remember that litter generates litter. Never dispose off plastics in the sewage system.

1) According to the passage which of the following statements have been mentioned as an effect of plastic pollution on marine wildlife?

  1. The non- biodegradable plastic on swallowing by marine organism can result in impaired movement, reduced reproductive output, lacerations, ulcers etc
  2. Ingestion of plastic can lead to wounds, blockage of digestive tract followed by satiation and starvation often leading to death

iii. When the fishes with huge amount of plastic are eaten by marine organism it lead to diseases like cancer.

a) i and ii

b) Only iii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

2) According to the passage which of the following has been correct as per the report of the Centre for Marine Conservation?

  1. 90% of chicks examined had plastic in their stomachs fed to them accidentally by their parents
  2. Over 25,000 pieces of fishing line were collected from U.S. beaches during the 1996 annual beach cleanse

iii. About 40% of all animal involvement reported during the cleanse drives involved fishing line

a) Only ii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

3) According to the passage which of the following compounds is used in the preparation of plastics pollution?

a) Formaldehyde

b) Poly ethylene

c) Polystyrene

d) Teflon

e) Polycithylcholide

4) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. Plastic thrown on land can enter the drainage lines and block them resulting into floods
  2. Plastic does not decompose and requires high energy ultra-violet light to break down
  3. Plastic can affect marine wildlife in two important ways-by creatures embroiling and by being swallowed

a) i and ii

b) Only ii

c) i and iii

d) ii and iii

e) All are correct

5) According to the passage which of the following statement has been mentioned correct about Endocrine disruptors?

  1. Endocrine disruptors when absorbed by human beings and wildlife imitate the action of hormones and have been linked to reproductive problems in animals and human beings
  2. When any food material is stored in it then the insolvable chemical gets dissolved in them causing death due to cancer and other skin diseases

iii. Endocrine disruptor such as Bisphenol A is a key monomer in production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins

a) ii and iii

b) Only i

c) i and ii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

6) According to the passage which of the following environmental degradation is caused by the thin plastics?

  1. It chokes the open sewage system and results in stagnation of sewage which leads to the spread of various diseases
  2. Plastic dumped on the soil prevents water dominance
  3. Burning of plastics results in release of toxins which, in turn, causes diseases such as Cancer.

a) i and ii

b) i and iii

c) ii and iii

d) All of the above

e) None of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “entangling” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Implicate

b) Extricate

c) Redeem

d) Emancipate

e) Unbind

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “scourge” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Invigorate

b) Succor

c) Excoriate

d) Gladden

e) Enliven

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “ubiquitous” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Pervasive

b) Sporadic

c) Omnipresent

d) Universal

e) Infinite

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “debilitation” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Fatigue

b) Enervation

c) Infirmity

d) Debility

e) Tenacity

Directions (11-15): In each of the following sentences there is one blank space. Below each sentence there are four words denoted by a), b), c) d) and e). Find one word that to be fitted in both the sentences I and II and another word that to fit in sentence III and to make it meaning fully complete.

11)

  1. The lawyer requested a break in the court case, but the judge ________.
  2. They wanted to make him the treasurer, but he _____.

iii. They present various _______ arguments against the scientific theory of evolution.

a) Commended, belligerent

b) Demurred, polemical

c) Acceded, eristic

d) Sanctified, pugnacious

e) Protested, tractable

12)

  1. She was determined that her sisters’ lives should not be __________ by her weakness.
  2. It is only rarely that he is ___________ with being forced to write contrary to his convictions.
  3. We are not going to seek for __________ comparisons between governments.

a) Hobble, slanderous

b) Expedited, envious

c) Bridled, vilify

d) Trammeled, invidious

e) Encumber, repugnant

13)

  1. I will not __________ on this deal unless I receive the stock options I have requested.
  2. I never thought my brother would __________ and allow me to drive his car for a week
  3.  His authority onstage and his ____________ manner made me very comfortable.

a) Relent, deterring

b) Entrench, obsequious

c) Capitulate, ingratiating

d) Succumb, abominable

e) Acknowledge, stinking

14)

  1. After the man was tortured by his government for many years, he decided to ________ his citizenship and move to a new country.
  2. When Hector tried to __________ his membership in the gang, the group’s leader threatened him
  3. The charity would like to collect a _________ of clothing to distribute to the homeless. 

a) Abdicate, curtailment

b) Renounce, surfeit

c) Approbate, plethora

d) Disavow, paucity

e) Abnegate, retrenchment

15)

  1. The data is __________ automatically by the computer after it has been entered
  2. Changes in total body water were assessed using a previously __________ electrical bio impedance method.
  3.  It is observed that when such matters occur in other countries they become extinct through lack of attention and _________ of interest.

a) Validated, exiguity

b) Authenticated, profusion

c) Legalized, affluence

d) Opposed, destitution

e) Ratified, defect

Directions (16-20): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a), b), c), d). Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences.

16) Carry around

  1. I wouldn’t carry that much stuff around the bus during rush hour
  2. Max carries around his checkbook with him.
  3. I’m tired of carrying this baby around with me everywhere
  4. This amount carries around into the next column.

a) ii and iii

b) i and iv

c) i and ii

d) iii and iv

e) All are correct

17) Egg on

i. She egged on her coworkers to sign the petition.

ii. Jack is always egging me on to drive faster

iii. The two boys kept throwing stones because Marie was egging them on.

iv. I didn’t want to sing song, but my friends egged me on

a) iii and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) All except iv

e) All are correct

18) Back out

  1. They backed out of the deal at the last minute.
  2. She almost backed out her brother.
  3. Traffic is totally backed out, due to all that construction.
  4. Judy backed out the car from the parking place

a) iii and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and iv

d) i and ii

e) All are correct

19) Build up

  1. I want to build up my endurance for the race.
  2. A lot of rust has built up on the farm machinery
  3. Inequalities are often built up on society
  4. His argument was building up to a grand climax.

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iv

d) All except iii

e) All are correct

20) Clear out

  1. The embassy advised us to clear out before the war started.
  2. I vowed to clear out to him until my dying day.
  3. The theater cleared out when the show ended.
  4. You will have to clear this expenditure out the main office

a) ii and iv

b) i and iii

c) iii and iv

d) i and ii

e) All are correct

Answers:

Direction (1-10)

1) Answer: a)

It is mentioned in the para 2-species, including invertebrates, turtles, fish, seabirds and mammals, have been reported to ingest or become entangled in plastic debris, resulting in impaired movement and feeding, reduced reproductive output, lacerations, ulcers, and finally death. Ingestion of plastic can lead to wounds; impairment of feeding capacity; blockage of digestive tract followed by satiation and starvation; and general debilitation often leading to death.

2) Answer: c)

It is mentioned in the para 1-According to the Centre for Marine Conservation, over 25,000 pieces of fishing line were collected from U.S. beaches during the 1996 annual beach clean-up and at least 40% of all animal entanglements reported during the clean-ups involved fishing line.

3) Answer: d)

It is mentioned in the para 1-In practices, urea, formaldehyde, poly ethylene, polystyrene, polycithylcholide, phenoloic compounds and other substances are used in the preparation of plastics pollution.

4) Answer: e)

It is mentioned in the para 2-Plastic thrown on land can enter the drainage lines and choke them resulting into floods in local areas in cities as was experienced in Mumbai, India in 1998, Plastic does not decompose, and requires high energy ultraviolet light to break down, the amount of plastic waste in our oceans is steadily increasing. This plastic can affect marine wildlife in two important ways; by entangling creatures, and by being swallowed.

5) Answer: d)

It is clearly mentioned in the para 3-Endocrine disruptor chemicals are added to plastic products to make them softer and easier to handle. These EDCs are common in our environment and, when absorbed by human beings and wildlife, mimic the action of hormones and have been linked to reproductive problems in animals and human beings are known to affect fat cells. Bisphenol A, an endocrine disruptor is a key monomer in production of polycarbonate plastic and epoxy resins

6) Answer: d)

It is clearly mentioned in the para 3-Thin plastics are thrown anywhere and everywhere causing the following environmental degradation problems. It blocks the open sewage system and results in stagnation of sewage paving way for the mosquitoes which leads to the spread of various diseases, Plastic dumped on the soil prevents water percolation into the water table, It affects the very structure of soil, Burning of plastics results in release of toxins in the atmosphere which, in turn, causes dreadly Cancer.

7) Answer: a)

The meaning of entangling is cause to become twisted together with something

8) Answer: c)

The meaning of scourge is to cause great suffering

9) Answer: b)

The meaning of ubiquitous is present, appearing, or found everywhere

10) Answer: e)

The meaning of debilitation is depletion of strength

Direction (11-15)

11) Answer: b)

The meaning of “demurred” is to object or disagree and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “polemical” is involving strongly critical or disputatious writing or speech so it is appropriate for iii blank

12) Answer: d)

The meaning of “trammeled” is to hinder or hold back and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “invidious” is unfairly discriminating or one sided so it is appropriate for iii blank.

13) Answer: c)

The meaning of “capitulate” is to surrender or give in and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “ingratiating” is intended to gain approval or favour so it is appropriate for iii blank.

14) Answer: b)

The meaning of “renounce” is to reject or refuse to recognize and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “surfeit” is an excessive amount of something so it is appropriate for iii blank.

15) Answer: a)

The meaning of “validated” is to check or prove the validity or accuracy of and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “exiguity” is absence or shortage so it is appropriate for iii blank.

Direction (16-20):

16) Answer: a)

The meaning of “carry around” is to have something on one’s person at all times or to physically carry someone and the phrase has been applied properly in ii and iii sentences.

17) Answer: e)

The meaning of “egg on” is to encourage or urge someone to do something and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences

18) Answer: c)

The meaning of “back out” is to back someone or something out or not to keep a commitment or promise: and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iv sentences

19) Answer: d)

The meaning of “build up” is to establish, increase or to form or construct and the phrase has been applied properly in i, ii and iv sentences

20) Answer: b)

The meaning of “clear out” is to become free or to leave a place, usually quickly and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences

Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck

Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
General Awareness “20-20” 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM

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