“20-20” English Question | Crack IBPS RRB PO/Assistant 2018 Day-178

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack IBPS RRB PO/Assistant 2018 (Day-178)

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Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

The 21st Century is facing major challenges for humanity. Due to population growth the resources are under constant threats and always falling short of needs and demands. Hence now cities have to address various issues such as ICT, Urban planning, climate change, environmental matters, non-renewable resources, social and economic development, increasing populations, city infrastructures, Governance & Funding etc. Greater emphasis on cities needs cities to think independently for economic growth and sustainability of various infrastructures. Thus in a determined bid to recast the urban landscape of the country to make urban areas more livable and inclusive besides driving the economic growth, the Union Government has approved the Smart Cities Mission and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation of 500 cities. Smart is not just about technology-enabled, but also about power, water, transportation, solid waste management and sanitation. A smart city’s core infrastructure is information technology, where a network of sensors, cameras, wireless devices, data centers forms the key infrastructure providing all important services. India’s urban population is currently around 31 per cent of the total population and it contributes over 60 per cent of India’s GDP. With about 30 village dwellers moving every minute from villages to become city dwellers, not many villages will be left India at the end of this century. Today’s cities face significant challenges – increasing populations, environmental and regulatory requirements, declining tax bases and budgets and increased costs. Moreover, the cost of Information and Communication Technologies has plunged making it economical for the government to implement them. Citizens are increasingly getting instant, anywhere, anytime, personalized access to information and services via mobile devices and computers. And they increasingly expect that same kind of access to city services. With increasing urbanization and the load on rural land, the government has now realized the need for cities that can cope with the challenges of urban living and also be magnets for investment.

Institutional infrastructure, physical infrastructure and social infrastructure constitute three pillars on which smart city rests. Institutional infrastructure refers to the activities that relate to the planning and management systems. Physical infrastructure refers to urban mobility system, the housing stock, the energy system, the water supply system, sewage system, sanitation facilities, solid waste management system and drainage system which are all integrated through the use of technology. Physical infrastructure should focus on three aspects. Improvements in public transport – metro rail, BRT, LRT, Monorail, etc. Improvements in infrastructure of other motor vehicles – ring roads, bypasses, elevated roads, improvements in the existing road ways. Improvements in infrastructure for walking, cycling and waterways. Social infrastructure helps in improving human capital index so lot of emphasis should be on education, healthcare and entertainment systems. Under the Smart Cities Mission, each selected city would get central assistance of Rs.100 crore per year for five years. Smart City aspirants will be selected through a ‘City Challenge Competition’ intended to link financing with the ability of the cities to perform to achieve the mission objectives. Each state will shortlist a certain number of smart city aspirants as per the norms to be indicated and they will prepare smart city proposals for further evaluation for extending Central support. Special emphasis will be given to participation of citizens in prioritizing and planning urban interventions. Redevelopment enables reconstruction of already built-up area that is not amenable for any interventions, to make it smart, Pan-city components could be interventions like Intelligent Transport Solutions that benefits all residents by reducing commuting time. Smart City Action Plans will be implemented by Special Purpose Vehicles to be created for each city

Government of India has launched a Viability Gap Funding Scheme to raise the fiscal viability of competitively bid infrastructure projects which are warranted by economic returns, but do not exceed the standard threshold of financial returns. Under the scheme, the government provides grant assistance up to 20% of the capital cost of the project, with an additional grant of up to 20% of the project costs can also be provided by the sponsoring authority. To attract financing, policymakers should increase risk mitigation efforts to make their Smart City competitive not just with other Indian urban centers but with comparable global investment opportunities. Tools available toward this goal include planning, credit enhancements, tax incentives, concession agreements, and upgraded reporting and data management systems. Above all else, policymakers should turn to assure a consistent, predictable, transparent business climate for both domestic and global investors with regular, meaningful industry dialogue. USD 1.2 billion allocated for smart cities and FDI norms relaxed USD 83 million allocated for Digital India Initiative. PPP Model to be used to upgrade infrastructure in 500 urban areas. Government of India and World Bank signed USD 236 million agreement for reducing disaster risks in coastal villages of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry. The Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd has planned to invest USD 26 billion in the next five years. There are the certain challenges involved with smart cities today which are -it will be crucial for the smart city dream to come true. For timely completion of project, all clearances should use online processes and should be cleared in a time bound manner. A regulatory body should be set up for all utility services so that level playing field is made available to the private sector and tariffs are set in a manner that balances financial sustainability with quality. Second is finance will play a crucial role the success of the smart city mission? One needs to be see how these projects need to be financed as majority of project would move through complete private investment or through public private partnership, third is for any smart city in the world, focus is on reliability of utility services be it electricity, water, telephone and broadband services. Similarly, municipal services such as water supply, drainage, solid waste management need to be of high quality and should be available 24X7. Fourth is Building capacity for 100 smart cities is not an easy task and most of the ambitious projects get delayed due to lack of quality manpower both at the center as well as states. Investment in capacity building programs have a multiplier effect as it helps in time bound completion of projects and also helps in designing programs, developing faculty, building databases as well as designing tool kits and decision support systems. Fifth is an extensive use of ICT enabled services will need a sound communications backbone. Cities to become smart, it is essential that the governance structure is also smart. Therefore, urban local bodies would need to make effective use of ICTs in public administration to connect and coordinate between various departments.

1) According to the passage which of the following are mentioned as a pillars of smart city?

i) Physical infrastructure is one of the pillar which refers to urban mobility system, the housing stock, the energy system, the water supply system, sewage system, sanitation facilities etc

ii) Another pillar is extensive use of ICT enabled services which refers to the need of sound communications backbone

iii) Institutional infrastructure is another pillar which refers to the activities that relate to the planning and management systems

a) i and ii

b) Only iii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

2) According to the passage what are the issues which need to be address in the cities?

i) Climate change and environmental matters

ii) ICT and Urban planning

iii) Healthcare issues and its cure

iv) Governance & Funding

a) ii and iv

b) i and iii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iv

e) All except iii

3) According to the passage which of the following are mentioned as an Implementation challenges in Smart City Mission?

i) Reliability of utility services such as electricity, water, telephone and broadband services

ii) Providing clearances in a time bound manner with the use of online mode

iii) Building capacity for 100 smart cities is not an easy task so Capacity building needs to be strengthened right at the beginning

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iii

d) Only ii

e) All of these

4) According to the passage which of the following statements have been mentioned correct about Viability Gap Funding Scheme?

i) It is launched to raise the fiscal viability of competitively bid infrastructure projects

ii) The government provides grant assistance up to 20% of the capital cost of the project under the scheme

iii) FDI norms relaxed USD 83 million allocated for the scheme

a) Only ii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

5) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

i) Smart City Action Plans will be implemented by Special Purpose Vehicles to be created for each city

ii) Government of India and Asian development bank signed USD 236 million agreement for reducing disaster risks in coastal villages

iii) The Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd has planned to invest USD 26 billion in the next five years in the mission

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) Only i & ii

e) All of these

6) According to the passage which of the following tools can be used by policymakers to attract financing for the mission?

a) Credit retrogression

b) Tax incentives

c) Concession agreements

d) All except a)

e) Upgraded reporting and data management systems

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “integrated” in bold as used in the passage.

a) Sundered

b) Consolidated

c) Scrambled

d) Ruffled

e) Dispelled

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “inclusive” in bold as used in the passage

a) Paltry

b) Attenuated

c) Confining

d) Comprehensive

e) Exiguous

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “threshold” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Egregious

b) Inception

c) Verge

d) Exemplar

e) Criterion

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “commuting” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Transposing

b) Mitigating

c) Redeeming

d) Enduring

e) Permuting

Direction(11-15) choose the set of word for each blank that best fits sentence and are grammatically correct.

11) Reducing the cost of universal health coverage is _________ and it requires parallel investments in the __________ public sector.

a) Obligatory, mediated

b) Exigent, investigated

c) Imperative, neglected

d) Discretionary, spurned

e) Trivial, affronted

12) The panel has suggested that SEBI be given the power to grant immunity to whistle-blowers who help uncover illegal activities, it has __________ new ideas to address market ___________ .

a) Mooted, manipulation

b) Contended, tackiness

c) Agitated, disarray

d) Settled, administration

e) Disputed, incoherence

13) National schemes on health provide an ___________ framework, but the responsibility of __________ them falls on the State governments, it is widely recognised that there are “nations with the nation” in India.

a) Ambient, flubbing

b) Enveloping, misfiring

c) Encircling, botching

d) Circumscribing, enacting

e) Overarching, executing

14) The onus is clearly on President to ensure that the airing of contrary political opinion does not cross the limits of _________ and decency in this __________ democracy.

a) Decorum, adept

b) Civility, fledgling

c) Asperity, neophyte

d) Crudity, novice

e) Compliance, savvy

15) The Reserve Bank of India has rejected the proposal of Kotak Mahindra Bank for __________ of the promoters’ stake through non-convertible __________ non-cumulative preference share route.

a) Infusion, ephemeral

b) Suffusion, fugitive

c) Dilution, perpetual

d) Concoction, provisional

e) Abridgement, ceaseless

Directions (16-20): Choose one of the words from the given options which makes sentence incorrect such that it changes the whole meaning of the sentence 

16) Granting more teeth to enable a) the market regulator to fulfill its primary role of protecting b) investors is fine, but it is equally critical c) to empower d) it with the right tools.

a) B-fortifying

b) A-facilitate

c) C-pedantic

d) D-begrudge

e) None of these

17) The Centre should extend a) the scheme to all children and senior citizens, and cover out-patient consultation b) and essential c) drugs to sharply reduce d) out-of-pocket spending.

a) C-requisite

b) A-augment

c) B-cessation

d) D-truncate

e) None of these

18) SCSB will have to capture a) and upload details in the e-bidding system as specified b) by the stock exchange and may begin blocking c) of funds available d) in the bank account specified in the form.

a) A-ensnare

b) C-conceding

c) B-enumerated

d) D-accessible

e) None of these

19) Pushing a) the assets in the sector for resolution b) under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code in a hurry might jeopardise c)the country’s energy security d) and force liquidation of these assets for a fraction of their costs.

a) D-surveillance

b) A-impelling

c) B-perseverance

d) C-insulate

e) None of these

20) The situation of electricity demand lagging a) behind the capacity addition b) is temporary c) phenomenon and likely to correct very soon due to various initiatives of the government and steady d) growth of our economy.

a) D- erratic

b) A-delaying

c) B-summation

d) C-fugacious

e) None of these

Answers:

Direction (1-10)

1) Answer: d)

It is mentioned in the para 2-Institutional infrastructure, physical infrastructure and social infrastructure constitute three pillars on which smart city rests. Institutional infrastructure refers to the activities that relate to the planning and management systems. Physical infrastructure refers to urban mobility system, the housing stock, the energy system, the water supply system, sewage system, sanitation facilities, solid waste management system and drainage system

2) Answer: e)

It is mentioned in the para 1-Hence now cities have to address various issues such as ICT, Urban planning, climate change, environmental matters, non-renewable resources, social and economic development, increasing populations, city infrastructures, Governance & Funding etc.

3) Answer: e)

It is clearly mentioned in para 3-For timely completion of project, all clearances should use online processes and should be cleared in a time bound manner, third is for any smart city in the world, focus is on reliability of utility services be it electricity, water, telephone and broadband services. Similarly, municipal services such as water supply, drainage, solid waste management need to be of high quality and should be available 24X7. Fourth is Building capacity for 100 smart cities is not an easy task also Investment in capacity building programs have a multiplier effect as it helps in time bound completion of projects and also helps in designing programs, developing faculty, building databases as well as designing tool kits

4) Answer: b)

It is mentioned in the para 3-Government of India has launched a Viability Gap Funding Scheme to raise the fiscal viability of competitively bid infrastructure projects which are warranted by economic returns, Under the scheme, the government provides grant assistance up to 20% of the capital cost of the project, with an additional grant of up to 20% of the project costs can also be provided by the sponsoring authority.

5) Answer: c)

It is mentioned in the para 3-Government of India and World Bank signed USD 236 million agreement for reducing disaster risks in coastal villages of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry. The Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd has planned to invest USD 26 billion in the next five years.Smart City Action Plans will be implemented by Special Purpose Vehicles to be created for each city.

6) Answer: d)

It is mentioned in the para 3-Tools available toward this goal include planning, credit enhancements, tax incentives, concession agreements, and upgraded reporting and data management systems.

7) Answer: b)

The meaning of word integrated is linked or coordinated with various parts or aspects

8) Answer: d)

The meaning of word inclusive is overall or all together

9) Answer: a)

The meaning of word threshold is basic standard or level

10) Answer: d)

The meaning of word commuting is travel some distance between one’s home and place of work on a regular basis.

Direction (11-15):

11) Answer: c)

The meaning of “imperative” is to “of vital importance” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “neglected” is “not receiving proper attention or disregarded” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12) Answer: a)

The meaning of “mooted” is to “to suggest an idea or possibility” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “manipulation” is “control or handling” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

13) Answer: e)

The meaning of “overarching” is to “comprehensive or overall” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “executing” is “put a plan into effect” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

14) Answer: b)

The meaning of “civility” is to “formal politeness in behaviour or speech” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “fledgling” is “beginner in activity” so it is appropriate for ii blank

15) Answer: c)

The meaning of “dilution” is to “to infuse or mix” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “perpetual” is “occurring repeatedly” so it is appropriate for ii blank

Direction (16-20):

16) Answer: d) D-begrudge which means be annoyed about something

17) Answer: c) B-cessation which means to halt or closing off

18) Answer: b) C-conceding which means to give or grant someone

19) Answer: d) C-insulate which means to cover or protect

20) Answer: a) D- erratic which means inconsistent