“20-20” English Question | Crack IBPS RRB PO/Assistant 2018 Day-182

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack IBPS RRB PO/Assistant 2018 (Day-182)

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Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

One of the unfortunate paradoxes of our lives today is that despite adequate food production and unimaginable advances in technology, one in three persons worldwide is not getting enough of the right food to eat and approximately 800 million of seven billion sleep hungry every night. Not surprisingly, this makes poor diet the No. 1 risk factor by far, for the global burden of disease. Poor diets globally are more responsible for ill health as compared with the combined effect of drugs, tobacco and alcohol. Add to this the fact that the world adds 200,000 new people to its population every day, of which India adds 58,000. This translates to the need to feed two billion more people by 2050 and to support a higher demand for major crops, estimated to increase by 50%, from 2.5 to 3.5 billion tonnes. It is therefore with compelling reason that target for the Sustainable Development Goal twelve is to halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level and reduce food losses along production and supply chains including post-harvest losses. Food loss is valued at $1 trillion globally by the Food and Agriculture Organization, enough to feed the eight hundred million who sleep hungry every night. Of this, over 200 million are in India, a country that grows sufficient food to feed its burgeoning population of 1.3 billion. The SDGs have clearly put the spotlight on food loss and waste, and we are beginning to see more attentive discussion on the subject. At the recently held Food Congress in Dusseldorf in early May 2017, the focus was on identifying possible solutions for both through better farming practices, use of technology, better information, change in consumer behaviour, etc. Estimates of food waste and food loss range between 30 and 50% for both developed and emerging countries.

In developed countries food waste happens more at the consumer household level, where more is purchased than consumed; and in emerging economies, it is the supply chain that leads to food loss during harvest, storage or in transit, largely due to poor infrastructure and inadequately aligned processes. In either scenario, food that is produced but not consumed is a colossal waste which we cannot afford to ignore. Food loss is also nutrition loss, productivity loss and therefore GDP loss. The 40% food loss in India translates to approximately $7.5 billion, and for a country where agriculture contributes 15% to GDP and employs 53% of the workforce. These are serious statistics, and unless there is an effort to address food loss factors systemically, the state of health and nutrition of our people will continue to be inadequate, as food loss means loss of macronutrients but even more alarming, it means loss of micronutrients because foods that are rich in micronutrients are also perishable. Additionally, with urbanisation and rising incomes, the length of the food value chain also increases, as what people eat becomes less and less connected to where they live. The Global Nutrition Report 2016 has highlighted India’s overall tardy progress in addressing chronic under nutrition, manifest in stunting, wasting and micronutrient deficiency or hidden hunger. With 17% of the world’s population, India remains home to a quarter of the world’s undernourished people, a third of the world’s underweight children and a quarter of the world’s hungry. This demographic cannot possibly result in a productive and efficient workforce, or be converted into any meaningful economic dividend.

Agriculture has to be one of the drivers of India’s growth, and even though we are the world’s third largest producer of food, our agriculture growth has fallen well below the targeted 4% over the last 15 years. According to the International Food Policy Research Institute, India needs to at least double its investment in agricultural research to double farmers’ incomes by 2022. Harnessing technology to increase agricultural productivity, where we lag both our potential and competitive benchmarks will be critical to our overall well-being. As an example, since the 1960s India’s groundwater irrigation has increased dramatically, and since the 1980s groundwater levels have been dropping, thus stressing the system. Groundwater recharge therefore becomes a critical variable to augment agricultural productivity. Further, imports of agricultural commodities have increased from 4% of GDP in 2008-09 to 5.5% of GDP in 2013-14, according to the Economic Survey. Edible oil imports alone in the last year cost us ₹65,000 crore. To provide even a baseline and dignified quality of life to its people, India has to address enhancing agricultural productivity, crop diversification and eliminating food loss and waste with a firm resolve, backed with the right and timely action. The last must be done on priority as it deals with food already available. There is clearly a structural and behavioural component to this, and the door is open for investment in food system infrastructure: storage, transportation, processing, etc.; investment in information systems that help identify loss by crop and region so solutions can be specifically tailored to the problem; use of technology to better connect supply and demand; public-private partnerships with companies to reduce spoilage and loss; creation of food banking networks that work with civil society and development agencies on getting food already available to those that need it.

1) According to the passage which of the following given statements are the major target of Sustainable Development Goal twelve?

  1. The creation of food banking networks
  2. To halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level
  3. To reduce food losses along production and supply chains including post-harvest losses.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) Only ii

e) All of these

2) Which of the following points have been highlighted in The Global Nutrition Report 2016 regarding India’s progress?

  1. The sluggish efforts of the country in addressing chronic under nutrition
  2. As per report one in three persons worldwide is not getting enough of the right food to eat
  3. The lagging progress of the country in addressing problem of stunting and micronutrient deficiency

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) All except i

e) None of these

3) According to the passage what kind of investment can be done by which we can minimize the loss of food and deal with the food already available?

  1. Investment in public-private partnerships with companies to reduce spoilage and loss
  2. Investment in information systems in order to identify loss by crop
  3.  Investment in use of technology to better connect supply and demand
  4. Investment in development of agencies on getting food already available to those that need it.

a) i and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) iii and iv

e) All are correct

4) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. Imports of agricultural commodities have increased from 4% of GDP in 2008-09 to 5.5% of GDP in 2013-14
  2. India remains home to a fourth of the world’s underweight children and a quarter of the world’s hungry.
  3. In developed countries food waste happens more at the consumer household level, whereas in emerging economies it happens due to the supply chain that leads to food loss.

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iii

d) Only ii

e) None of these

 5) According to the passage which of the following was not the focus issue of the Food Congress held in Dusseldorf?

a) Change in consumer behaviour

b) Crop diversification

c) Use of technology and better information

d) Better farming practices

e) None of these

6) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. India needs to at least double its investment in agricultural research to double farmers’ incomes by 2022.
  2. Food loss is valued at $1 trillion globally by the Food and Agriculture Organization, enough to feed the nine hundred million.
  3. As per the estimates, food waste and food loss range between 30 and 50% for both developed and emerging countries.

a) Only iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) ii and iii

e) None of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “burgeoning” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Abatement

b) Proliferate

c) Ebbing

d) Dwindle

e) Attenuate

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “augment” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Abridge

b) Coagulate

c) Solidify

d) Epitomize

e) Ameliorate

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “tardy” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Sluggish

b) Delinquent

c) Expeditious

d) Laggard

e) Dawdling

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “colossal” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Diminutive

b) Mammoth

c) Behemothic

d) Humongous

e) Prodigious

Direction (11-15): Choose the set of word for each blank that best fits sentence and are grammatically correct.

11) Social media is fairly new and everyone is ________ the impact, because it can always be ______ we do not know what could happen on the legislation front on data privacy.

a) Appraising, manoeuvre

b) Gauged, swinging

c) Evaluating, manipulated

d) Disdaining, steered

e) Guesstimate, wielded

12) Betting companies warn that the change will eliminate jobs in the industry but the Campaign for Fairer Gambling, a lobby group, ________ that maintaining the previous _______ limit would also cost jobs.

a) Counters, wagering

b) Retaliate, plunging

c) Circumvent, hedging

d) Facilitates, parlaying

e) Contravene, staking

13) After the 2008 crisis, _______ in retail loans shot up and a lot of banks stopped lending to retail, credit card portfolio ________ significantly and credit limits got reduced substantially.

a) Misconduct, dwindles

b) Delinquencies, shrunk

c) Nonfeasance, condense

d) Offences, constricts

e) Dereliction, wither

14) While the Centre’s goal of homes for all by 2022 is ______ it is unlikely to be realised without a push from the States, and the launch of schemes driven by innovation and low-cost approaches, ________ rental housing should be a priority within the plan.

a) Creditable, supplemented

b) Exemplary, aggravates

c) Noteworthy, curtailing

d) Laudable, augmenting

e) Reputable, inflamed

15) India’s new bankruptcy law is being _______ down by bitter court room disputes that include the likes of Arcelor Mittal and the Tata Group ________ the law’s promise of time-bound resolution in a country famous for its sluggish legal system.

a) Annihilated, imperil

b) Bogged, jeopardizing

c) Expunge, prejudicing

d) Obscured, threaten

e) Extirpate, gambling

Direction (16-20): The sentences may contain multiple errors, find out which part of sentence has an error and mark the option given below as a), b), c), d). Choose e) as an option if you find out that sentence has no error.

16) Amongst governments there is a strong policy emphasis on A)/improving facilities in rural areas, indicating a political preference for B)/ reduced migration into urban centres, although C)/ there is a natural economic magnetism to cities D)/No Error E)/

a) B-C

b) A-D

c) C-D

d) A-C

e) No Error

17) Any user or trader dealing with virtual currencies are A)/ doing it at their own risk, the RBI has been repeatedly flagged concerns B)/ on virtual currencies like Bitcoins, stating that they pose potential financial C)/, legal, customer protection and security-related risks D)/ No Error E)/

a) A-B

b) C-D

c) B-D

d) A-C

e) No Error

18) Housing deficits have led to the proliferation of slums, lack A)/of enforcement of building norms has left the metros heavy B)/congested, and poor investing in public transport has C)/ fuelled unsustainable levels of private vehicle use D)/No Error E)/

a) B-D

b) A-C

c) B-C

d) A-B

e) No Error

19) Given the multitude of issues engaging the public attention, and A)/ to develop a holistic and integrated approach, this is a great opportunity B)/ for the I&B Ministry to prepare, plan and evolve a media strategy which C)/ can be skillfully executed in a proactive manner over various media platforms D)/No Error E)/

a) A-B

b) B-C

c) A-D

d) C-D

e) No Error

20) The imperative before the Centre and State governments is to A)/come in with policies that provide adequate services in the villages B)/, while investing in cities to ensure that there high C)/ levels of productivity and efficiency are not compromised D)/ No Error E)/

a) C-D

b) B-C

c) A-B

d) A-D

e) No Error

Answers:

Direction (1-10):

1) Answer: a)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1-It is therefore with compelling reason that target for the Sustainable Development Goal twelve is to halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer level and reduce food losses along production and supply chains including post-harvest losses.

2) Answer: c)

It is clearly mentioned in para 2-The Global Nutrition Report 2016 has highlighted India’s overall tardy progress in addressing chronic under nutrition, manifest in stunting, wasting and micronutrient deficiency or hidden hunger.

3) Answer: e)

It is mentioned in para 3-investment in information systems that help identify loss by crop and region so solutions can be specifically tailored to the problem; use of technology to better connect supply and demand; public-private partnerships with companies to reduce spoilage and loss; creation of food banking networks that work with civil society and development agencies on getting food already available to those that need it.

4) Answer: d)

It is mentioned in para 2&3-Further, imports of agricultural commodities have increased from 4% of GDP in 2008-09 to 5.5% of GDP in 2013-14, according to the Economic Survey. With 17% of the world’s population, India remains home to a quarter of the world’s undernourished people, a third of the world’s underweight children and a quarter of the world’s hungry. In developed countries food waste happens more at the consumer household level, where more is purchased than consumed; and in emerging economies, it is the supply chain that leads to food loss during harvest, storage or in transit.

5) Answer: b)

It is mentioned in para 1-At the recently held Food Congress in Dusseldorf in early May 2017, the focus was on identifying possible solutions for both through better farming practices, use of technology, better information, change in consumer behaviour, etc.

6) Answer: c)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1&3-According to the International Food Policy Research Institute, India needs to at least double its investment in agricultural research to double farmers’ incomes by 2022. Estimates of food waste and food loss range between 30 and 50% for both developed and emerging countries. Food loss is valued at $1 trillion globally by the Food and Agriculture Organization, enough to feed the eight hundred million who sleep hungry every night.

7) Answer: b)

The meaning of the word burgeoning is begin to grow or increase rapidly or to flourish.

8) Answer: e)

The meaning of the word augment is to make something greater by adding to it

9) Answer: c)

The meaning of the word tardy is slow in action or response

10) Answer: a)

The meaning of the word colossal is extremely large

Direction (11-15):

11) Answer: c)

The meaning of “evaluating” is to “form an opinion of something” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “manipulated” is “to handle or control a mechanism in a skilful manner” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12) Answer: a)

The meaning of “counters” is to “answer or responding a reaction” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “wagering” is “to more formal term for bet or put money on” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

13) Answer: b)

The meaning of “delinquencies” is “lawbreaking or wrongdoings” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “shrunk” is “to decrease” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

14) Answer: d)

The meaning of “laudable” is “deserving praise and commendation” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “augmenting” is “to build up or improve” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

15) Answer: b)

The meaning of “bogged” is “to cancel or eliminate” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “jeopardizing” is “put someone or something into a situation in which there is a danger of loss” so it is appropriate for ii blank

Direction (16-20):

16) Answer: d)

In part a) it should be among (Among is used when the items are part of a group, or are not specifically named) instead of amongst and in part c) it should be to in place of into

17) Answer: a)

In part a) it should be is instead of are and in part b) it should be flagging in place of flagged

18) Answer: c)

In part b) it should be heavily instead of heavy and in part c) it should be investment in place of investing

19) Answer: c)

In part a) it should be public’s instead of public and in part d) it should be through in place of over

20) Answer: b)

In part b) it should be up instead of in (come up means to approach or make for) and in part c) it should be their in place of there

Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck

Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
General Awareness “20-20” 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM

English New Pattern Questions 

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