“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI Clerk / IDBI Executive 2018 Day-60

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 (Day-60)

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Direction (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions     given below it.

Innis is best known for his book, The Bias of Communication, first published in 1951. As the title indicates, he was interested in examining the nature of a medium or technology of communication as a factor of social order. He studied the history of ancient empires and their decline by focusing on the technology of communication they used. Innis used ‘space’ and ‘time’ as basic sources of bias in different media of communication developed down the ages. Some, like rock inscriptions, manuscripts copied by hand, and orally stored epics were biased, in Innis’s view, towards stability over long periods of time. On the other hand, newspapers, radio and television were examples of space-bias technology. They reach out to vast territories, but the content or message does not last long.

The Internet and the mobile phone seem heavily ‘space-biased’ in Innisian terms. Their reach is extraordinarily wide and fast, but the messages conveyed through them need relentless repetition, suggesting ephemeral value. This disbalance gets magnified in social media such as Facebook and Twitter. They provide huge followings to users, and, in the same measure, they create short-lived ripples that titillate and excite the public space on a constant basis. This duality explains the attraction they exercise despite the risk their users face of being manipulated. The rise of these social media companies has coincided with major changes in the nature of the state and its duties towards citizens. Surveillance as a means of providing safety has gained acceptability even legitimacy in many parts of the world. In the industrially advanced bastions of liberal democracy, a sharp change in public willingness to put up with, even appreciate, the state’s ominous presence in every sphere of life has come about. This accommodating public mood has prompted the tendency among political leaders to seek more and more authority and means to create a centralized system to wield it. Advances in communication technology have encouraged systems of governance to concentrate decision-making power at the higher rungs, leaving compliance and implementation to people placed at the lower rungs. Innis would have seen this as a sign of increase in space-bias. He would also have related this increase to the diminution of memory and continuity. Parallel and rapid growth of these two tendencies can be expected to cause significant amounts of disbalance, which might lead to the collapse of institutions that play a balancing role. Democracy is one such institution. It is based on the idea of participation of the largest number of people, even if that slows down decision-making. On the face of it, social media creates the illusion of maximal participation, but in reality it promotes the culture of mass ‘following’. The millions who comprise the ‘following’ of leaders can hardly be called participants in decision-making. This model of communication has smoothly pushed American democracy towards an unfamiliar wilderness. Its electoral process compromised by manipulation of voters’ minds by use of authentic data they have themselves provided the U.S. faces a deep vulnerability, from within itself.

In our own case, the use of digital technology to give every citizen a unique identity number is creating new daily challenges for stemming the centralisation of authority. Whatever the highest court decides in the Aadhaar case, it can hardly avoid noticing the centripetal energies fast grabbing our democracy. Of course, these wider tendencies can’t be attributed to Aadhaar. Long before Nandan Nilekani had gifted this shiny toy to the nation, ostensibly meant to improve the the state’s capacity to serve the poor, the problem of handling data about common people with integrity was quite familiar to the lower functionaries managing elections. In all likelihood, both Facebook and American democracy will survive the rough weather they are facing. It is equally likely that they will learn little from this experience. This is because their financial investments in the new communication order are heavy and will not allow withdrawal or slowdown in use. An element of destiny has already crept in. As an institution, social media is in its infancy, but it has already acquired an ideological temper. It wields the power of crowds that are ready to lynch its critics.

 

1)         According to the passage which disadvantage has/have been mentioned about space bias technology?

  1. The ads are non-intrusive, which means the impact is largely on readers who are already looking for these
  2. Its content and message does not last long
  3. The proportionate cost works out to a lot more risk for your business than other forms of advertising.
  4. It is also very unlikely to reach younger generations.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) only ii

d) i and iv

e) none of these

2)         What do you mean by the phrase crept in the statement -An element of destiny has already crept in?

a) To enter some thing or place slowly and/or stealthily.

b) To steel something slowly.

c) To evade something/someone

d) To galvanize something

e) None of these

3)         Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. The book of Innis was first published in 1951
  2. Advances in communication technology have discouraged systems of governance to concentrate decision-making power
  3. Innis used ‘space’ and ‘time’ as basic sources of bias in different media of communication.

a) ii and iii

b) only i

c) i and iii

d) i and ii

e) all are correct

4)         According to the passage which of the following is not the example of space biased technology?

a) Newspaper

b) Radio

c) Television

d) Clay and stone tablets

e) None of these

5)         Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. Facebook and Twitter provide huge followings to users, and, in the same measure, they create long-lived splash
  2. Space-bias technology reach out to vast territories.
  3. In reality social media promotes the culture of mass following.

a) i and iii

b) only i

c) i and ii

d) only iii

e) none of these

6)         What are the advantages of introducing Aadhaar card are mentioned in the passage?

  1. Voter ID will be linked to Aadhaar Card in a bid to eliminate the bogus voters.
  2. In order to improve the state’s capacity to serve the poor.
  3. To overcome the problem of handling data about common people.
  4. Aadhaar Card will relieve you of the lengthy procedure while obtaining Passport.

a) ii and iv

b) i and iii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iv

e) none of these

7)         According to Innis why Internet and the mobile phone are heavily ‘space-biased?

  1. It has allowed a great deal of anonymity to a large number of people who may access the different websites, forums and chat rooms available.
  2. The messages conveyed through them need constant repetition.
  3. It makes it easier for computer hackers and malicious users to hack accounts and steal personal information that could be used for identity theft.

a) ii and iii

b) only ii

c) i and ii

d) all except iii

e) all are correct

8)         Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “ostensibly” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Improbably

b) Seemingly

c) Obscurely

d) Indecisively

e) Vaguely

9)         Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “ephemeral” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Enduring

b) Perpetual

c) Interminable

d) Eternal

e) Transitory

10)      Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “titillate” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Amuse

b) Repulse

c) Tantalize

d) Provoke

e) Grapple

 Direction (1-10):

1)         Correct answer- c)

Explanation- it is mentioned in para 1 – On the other hand, newspapers, radio and television were examples of space-bias technology. They reach out to vast territories, but the content or message does not last long.

2)         Correct answer- a)

Explanation- it means to enter some thing or place slowly and/or stealthily.

3)         Correct answer- c)

Explanation-it is mentioned in para 1 -Innis is best known for his book, The Bias of Communication, first published in 1951, Innis used ‘space’ and ‘time’ as basic sources of bias in different media of communication.

4)         Correct answer- d)

Explanation- it is mentioned in para 1-On the other hand, newspapers, radio and television were examples of space-bias technology.

5)         Correct answer- b)

Explanation- it is mentioned in para 1&2 -They reach out to vast territories, but the content or message does not last long, On the face of it, social media creates the illusion of maximal participation, but in reality it promotes the culture of mass ‘following’.

6)         Correct answer- c)

Explanation- it is mentioned in para 3- Nandan Nilekani had gifted this shiny toy to the nation, ostensiblymeant to improve the state’s capacity to serve the poor, the problem of handling data about common people with integrity.

7)         Correct answer- b)

Explanation- it is mentioned in para 2- The Internet and the mobile phone seem heavily ‘space-biased’ in Innisian terms. Their reach is extraordinarily wide and fast, but the messages conveyed through them need relentless repetition, suggesting ephemeralvalue.

8)         Correct answer- c)

Explanation- the meaning of word ostensibly is as appears or is stated to be true, though not necessarily so; apparently.

9)         Correct answer- e)

Explanation- the meaning of word ephemeral is lasting for a very short time.

10)       Correct answer- b)

Explanation- the meaning of word titillate is to stimulate something or someone.

 

Direction (11-15):  choose the set of word for each blank that best fits sentence and are grammatically correct.

11)      Trade remedies are attractive because they create tangible short-term benefits such as job creation, reduction in trade deficit, and higher local tax collection, however, such a move would also result in higher tariffs and make solar power less attractive for the already financially _______ and RE-sceptical_______.

a) Pretend, services

b) Choked, advantage

c) Strained, utilities

d) Toilsome, convenience

e) Far fetch, favor

12)      The training would be ___________ to suit the lifestyle of the State police; they would be engaged in a series of programmes aimed at building their communication skills and confidence in managing problems arising out of _________ at work.

a) Contrive, dilemma

b) Customized, exigencies

c) Personalized, plight

d) Transfigure, extremities

e) Tailored, ordinariness

13)      It is vital that India remains compliant with the global trade regime, previous measures for example, the domestic content requirement or DCR scheme to_______ the concerns of the domestic solar manufacturers were challenged and _______at the World Trade Organization (WTO).

a) Placated, disordered

b) Moderate, capsize

c) Alleviate, organised

d) Assuage, overturned

e) Provoke, reversed

14)      Pyongyang last year __________seemingly sought to humiliate Beijing by timing some of its missile tests for major global summits in China, while its state media __________accused Chinese state-controlled media of “going under the armpit of the U.S.” by criticizing the North.

a) Authentically, allege

b) Covertly, arraign

c) Seemingly, accused

d) Indiscernibly, summon

e) Ostensibly, acquitted

15)      Effectively balancing India’s goals of energy access, ___________enhanced energy security, and climate ambition, is not impossible, but definitely difficult, in supporting the domestic manufacturing industry, the government may be _______backing a horse which may not run for long.

a) Enhanced, backing

b) Embellish, assistance

c) Aggrandize, obstruction

d) Exalted, blockage

e) Debased, endorsement

Direction (11-15)

11. Correct answer- c)

Explanation- the meaning of “strained” is “showing signs of nervous tension or tiredness” and it is suitable for i  blank and the meaning of “utilities” is “the state of being useful, profitable, or beneficial” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

  1. Correct answer- b)

Explanation- the meaning of “customized” is “modify (something) to suit a particular individual or task” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “exigencies” is “an urgent need or demand” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

  1. Correct answer- d)

Explanation- the meaning of “assuage” is “to mitigate or soothe” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “overturned” is “abolish, invalidate, or reverse” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

  1. Correct answer- c)

Explanation- the meaning of “seemingly” is “apparently” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “accused” is “to charge (someone) with an offence or crime” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

  1. Correct answer- a)

Explanation- the meaning of “enhanced” is “to intensify, increase, or further improve the quality, value, or extent of” and it is suitable for i blank and the meaning of “backing” is “to help or support” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

 

Directions (16-20): Each of the following sentences are divided into parts, which are marked a, b, c and d. One of these parts may contain an error. Mark that part as your answer from the options given below and choose e if you find out there is no error. (Ignore punctuation error if any)

  1. To get ahead in that race, India will need a comprehensive strategy a)/on issues such as effective sources of critical minerals, investment b)/in R&D, access to patient venture capital, and c)/ fiscal benefits for the industries of the future d)/no error e)/

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

  1. Under the deal, Antrix, ISRO’s commercial arm, was to provide 70 MHz of a)/ the scarce S-Band wavelength to Devas for their digital multimedia services, b)/this was to be done by leasing 90 per cent of the transponders c)/ in satellites GSAT-6 and GSAT-6A that are proposed to be launched by ISRO d)/ no error e)/

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

  1. By freezing the biopsy tissue, the researchers preserved the structure and demonstrated that this a)/ new part was supported by a complex network of thick collagen bundles b)/, “we can call it an interstitial space with connective tissue; the new report has well define c)/the structure using the latest modified tissue processing techniques d)/no error e)/

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

  1. The robot is able to understand and speak 23 languages and is equipped up a)/ with software that allows it to understand students’ requirements and B)/ helps it to encourage learning, in this trial however, it c)/communicates in English, Finnish and German only d)/no error e)/

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

  1. Policy support for the solar sector is increasingly focused on domestic manufactures a)/, both in the form of capital subsidies and considerations of b)/trade regulation, however, are these interventions the c)/ right signals to send to an already uncertain solar sector d)/no error e)/

a) a

b) b

c) c

d) d

e) e

 Direction (16-20)

16)       correct answer – b)

Explanation- in part b in place of sources it should be sourcing

17)       correct answer – b)

Explanation- in part b in place of their it should be its.

18)       correct answer – c)

Explanation- in part c in place of define it should be defined.

19)       correct answer – a)

Explanation- in part a in place of equipped up it should be only equipped (omit up from the place)

20)       correct answer – a)

Explanation- in part a in place of manufactures it should be manufacturing.

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