“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 Day-91

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 (Day-91)

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Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

There are many lessons to be learned from the two months of turmoil that we have witnessed since November 8, but one stands out. The government not only underestimated the capacity for inefficiency and wrongdoing of our commercial banks, but also appears to overestimate their ability to turn around a shocked economy. On this score, the demonetisation, held out by the government as a means to ending corruption, faltered at the very outset. The diversion of notes meant for the public is only a variation on a theme that we have long witnessed in India whereby a commodity in short supply is cornered by those in charge of its distribution and sold to the highest bidder. So the demonetisation meant to eliminate black money led directly to a black market for currency notes. What is far more unfortunate though is that the Reserve Bank of India has got embroiled in the mess. Not only has it managed the transition with extraordinary incompetence, its Governor having announced on November 8 that it had ramped up production of the new notes, but its officers have had to be suspended for abetting money laundering. The public had viewed the RBI as above the sectarian calculations of the political class and the brazen corruption associated with the government machinery. We may overlook the apologia and look only at the arguments made by the government’s spokespersons. Two are made. First, that a larger volume of deposits will spur lending and increase investment. And second, that once most of the cash has come into the system financial transactions can be tracked by the government.

That with banks flush with funds their lending will increase is based on a fallacy. For, so long as the bank is not loaned-up the volume of lending will be determined by the demand for loans. The economics profession has long recognised this. It had first been noticed in the U.S. during the 1930s. The rate of interest fell but private investment did not increase, precisely because there was a paucity of willing borrowers. It is this that had led Keynes to characterise the use of monetary policy to revive an economy as pushing on a string. Essentially, private investors compare the cost of capital, represented by the rate of interest, to the expected rate of return on the project. In times of uncertainty the expected rate of return would have to quite high for a project to be chosen. Recent experience should have given us some idea of what to expect at present. Credit growth had been sluggish even before November 8. In fact, private gross fixed capital formation has been depressed for a couple of years at least, even though the RBI has lowered the policy rate twice in 2016. This had led the World Bank to remark that recent growth in India was being driven, quite unusually, by public investment and private consumption. Unless firms are so impressed with the potential of the demonetisation, they are unlikely to unburden the banks of the deposits that have so copiously flowed into them. But let us return to the role of banks. Well before suffering the ignominy of having some of their officers found with hands in the till they had piled up bad loans termed non-performing assets. The timing of the announcement of a lower lending rate by the State Bank of India should leave us wary of the possibility that the government will exert pressure on the banks to lend to boost demand and raise the level of activity in the economy. A political business cycle with government pump-priming the economy before elections is said to occur in western democracies.

In India the government has an extra lever in the form of a nationalised banking sector that can be forced to dance to its tune. The very poor lending decisions of public-sector banks commencing in UPA II have resulted in a high level of NPAs. The current priority is to remonetise the economy, and fast. The RBI and the banks must eliminate the cash crunch that has resulted in livelihood loss, especially in rural India. The government is yet to address this issue or to give its view on one of the solutions proffered which must perforce be a public undertaking. NPAs come in the way of banks expanding their loan portfolio. In an environment characterised by slowing growth, poor investor sentiment and NPA-strapped banks, the government’s task is cut out. The macroeconomic strategy should now make use of fiscal policy. An occasion is presented by the budget for the year 2017-18. When private investment is skittish, one would reasonably expect public investment to step in. The budget for the present year did little for aggregate demand with the fiscal deficit down and the allocation for public investment merely inching forward. There is the possibility that in the government may cut public investment. This is not mere speculation. In the year 2015-2016 capital expenditure had ended up at less than what had been budgeted. Altogether, this government appears reluctant to expand public capital even though it is in short supply in the economy. For every demonstration that India has a higher cash-to-GDP ratio compared to the rest of the world, we can point to its lower level of public services, not to mention human development compared to even some of our neighbours.

 

1) According to the passage which of the following given arguments are made by the government spokesperson during demonetisation?

  1. Larger volume of deposits will induce lending and increase investment.
  2. India has a higher cash-to-GDP ratio compared to the rest of the world
  3.  Most of the cash that has come into the system financial transactions can be tracked by the government.

a) ii and iii

b) only i

c) i and ii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

2) According to the passage which of the following given issue is yet to get address by the government especially in rural India?

  1. To eliminate the cash crunch that has resulted in livelihood loss
  2. Increased bad loans that are termed as non-performing assets
  3. Increasing the private investment.

a) i and ii

b) only i

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) All are true

3) Which conditions had led the World Bank to remark that recent growth in India was being driven unusually by public investment and private consumption?

  1. Banks are pressurized to raise the level of activity in the economy
  2. Private gross fixed capital formation has been depressed for a couple of years
  3. Pressure on the banks to lend to boost demand

a) All except i

b) ii and iii

c) only ii

d) i and ii

e) None of these

4) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. In the year 2015-2016 capital expenditure had ended up at more than what had been budgeted.
  2. When private investment is lively, one would reasonably expect public investment to bow out.
  3.  NPAs come in the way of banks expanding their loan portfolio

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and iii

d) only ii

e) None of these

5) According to the passage what reason has been mentioned regarding the falling of the rate of interest and no increment in private investment in the US?

a) Because of slowdown in private credit and

b) Because of twin balance sheets problems in the banking and corporate sectors.

c) Because there was a lack of willing borrowers

d) Because of the issues like environmental clearances and other market conditions.

e) None of these

6) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. The government overestimated ability of the commercial banks to turn around a shocked economy
  2. The announcement of a lower lending rate by RBI brought up the possibility that the government will exert pressure on the banks to lend to boost demand
  3.  Demonetization meant to eliminate black money led directly to a black market for currency notes

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) only ii

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word faltered printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Endure

b) Fumbled

c) Bucolic

d) Reposing

e) Hushed

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word paucity printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Affluence

b) Plethora

c) Dearth

d) Copious

e) Bounteous

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word embroiled printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Ensnare

b) Confound

c) Incriminate

d) Encumber

e) Preclude

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word proffered printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Propound

b) Enshroud

c) Adduce

d) Affirm

e) Broach

Directions (11-15): Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Below the sentence are five sets of words. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

11) In the past, real exchange rate appreciation would lead to ______ and large changes in the nominal exchange rate of the rupee against the U.S. dollar, often _______by domestic macro/political and global economic developments

a) Rushing, provoke

b) Abrupt, triggered

c) Concise, sparking

d) Discourteous, elicit

e) Deliberate, prompted

12) Government’s focus on unaccounted income continued to ______ this part of the market, with retail investors wary of heightened surveillance _______ to the fall in demand for bars and coins in India.

a) Undulated, implying

b) Scrunch, attributed

c) Rectify, remarking

d) Crimp, referring

e) Pleated, broach

13) India has told the United States it won’t _______ from ______ prices for more medical devices, regardless of pressure to rethink its stance after price controls on heart stents and knee implants spoilt the market for some U.S. firms

a) Eschewed, clinching

b) Refrain, outstrip

c) Abstain, capping

d) Renounce, surmount

e) Indulge, surpassing

14) The said approval is quite a welcome measure especially with a blend of it having _______the taxpayers data _______ in the Government’s hands only as well as continuation of some required flexibilities.

a) Establish, inhabiting

b) Ensured, residing

c) Corroborate, abiding

d) Repudiated, tenanting

e) Fortify, settling

15) There are concerns that a durable recovery may remain ________ by factors such as the persistence of low productivity and debt _______ problems in advanced economies as well as in some emerging market economies

a) Constrained, overhang

b) Repress, menace

c) Contrived, protruding

d) Inhibit, impend

e) Restraining, loom

Directions (16-20): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a), b), c), d) Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences

16) Give away

  1. The furniture shop’s offering three-piece suites at giveaway prices.
  2. She gave me away the book that she borrowed last week.
  3. I won’t give away all my hobbies for you
  4. The tax cuts represent a give away by the government to these businesses.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iv

d) ii and iv

e) All are correct

17) Ramp up

  1. The factory must ramp up production due to increased demand for its products.
  2. I added a new card to my computer memory to ramp it up.
  3. There was a ramp up to the warehouse floor from a dirt track.
  4. As assemblers are needed to support the production ramp-up, the total number of jobs is expected to grow to around 20.

a) i and ii

b) ii and iv

c) i and iii

d) all except iii

e) All are correct

18) Bow out

  1. The candidate bowed out after news of his scandal went public.
  2. The rebels refused to bow out to a corrupt
  3. The singer bowed out of the talent show at the last minute.
  4. I think I will bow out and leave this job to someone else.

a) iii and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and iv

d) all except ii

e) All are correct

19) Pick apart

  1. The children picked the bread apart, trying to remove all the raisins.
  2. Tony picked this one apart the collection.
  3. The lawyer picked apart the witness’s testimony.
  4. The critics picked apart the little things, missing the serious problems

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) i and iii

d) ii and iv

e) All are correct

20) Set off

  1. The subject set off my uncle, and he talked on endlessly.
  2. The heat set off a chemical reaction
  3. The editor suggested that I set off the passage with italics.
  4. I set my empty glass off the counter.

a) iii and iv

b) i and ii

c) ii and ii

d) all except iv

e) All are correct

Answers:

Direction (1-10)

1). Correct Answer is: d)

It is mentioned in para 1-Two arguments are made. First, that a larger volume of deposits will spur lending and increase investment. And second, that once most of the cash has come into the system financial transactions can be tracked by the government.

2). Correct Answer is: b)

It is mentioned in para 3-The RBI and the banks must eliminate the cash crunch that has resulted in livelihood loss, especially in rural India. The government is yet to address this issue

3). Correct Answer is: c)

It is mentioned in para 2-In fact, private gross fixed capital formation has been depressed for a couple of years at least, even though the RBI has lowered the policy rate twice in 2016. This had led the World Bank to remark that recent growth in India was being driven, quite unusually, by public investment and private consumption.

4). Correct Answer is: a)

It is clearly mentioned in para 3-In the year 2015-2016 capital expenditure had ended up at less than what had been budgeted. When private investment is skittish, one would reasonably expect public investment to step in. NPAs come in the way of banks expanding their loan portfolio

5). Correct Answer is: c)

It is clearly mentioned in para 2-It had first been noticed in the U.S. during the 1930s. The rate of interest fell but private investment did not increase, precisely because there was a paucity of willing borrowers.

6). Correct Answer is: d)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1&2-The government not only underestimated the capacity for inefficiency and wrongdoing of our commercial banks, but also appears to overestimate their ability to turn around a shocked economy. So the demonetisation meant to eliminate black money led directly to a black market for currency notes. The timing of the announcement of a lower lending rate by the State Bank of India should leave us wary of the possibility that the government will exert pressure on the banks to lend to boost demand and raise the level of activity in the economy.

7). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of faltered is to lose strength or momentum.

8). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of paucity is the presence of something in only small or insufficient quantities or amounts.

9). Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of embroiled is involve deeply in an argument, conflict, or difficult situation

10). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of proffered is to hold out or put forward something to someone for acceptance.

Directions (11-15):

11). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “abrupt” is “sudden and unexpected” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “triggered” is “response caused by particular action, process, or situation” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of crimp” is “to put restriction/limitation” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “referring” is “to mention or make reference to” so it is appropriate for ii blank

13). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “abstain” is “restrain oneself from doing something” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “capping” is “outdo a performance or concluding something” so it is appropriate for ii blank

14). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “ensured” is “make sure that a problem does not occur” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “residing” is “be in the hands of or to occupy” so it is appropriate for ii blank

15). Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “constrained” is “severely restrict the scope, extent, or activity of” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “overhang” is “to rise above or overtop” so it is appropriate for ii blank

Directions (16-20):

16). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “give away” is to “cause or allow to become known or something provided at no charge, or for which nothing is expected in return” and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iv sentences.

17). Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “ramp up” is “to increase the volume, amount, or rate of something” and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences.

18). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “bow out” is “to retire or resign as something or to stop taking part in an activity” and the phrase has been applied properly in i, iii and iv sentences.

19). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of pick apart” is “to pull something or someone to pieces or to find flaws in something or someone” and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences.

20). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “set off” is “to give rise to something or to cause something to explode” and the phrase has been applied properly in i, ii and iii sentences.

Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck

Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Logical Reasoning 10.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
Static GK Quiz 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Banking Awareness Quiz 3.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM
General / Financial Awareness Quiz 9.00 PM

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