“20-20” English Question | Crack Dena Bank 2018 Day-98

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack Dena Bank 2018 (Day-98)

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Direction (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

The viral of farm loan waivers is acquiring epidemic proportions. This is notwithstanding serious concerns that this can scarcely address the distress of the farming community. Unfortunately, broader structural changes in agriculture have eluded coherent implementation. Loan waivers in the past failed to address intended outcomes. State governments are entitled to take such decisions but manage their financial consequences. Following the 14th Finance Commission recommendations, the total State expenditure is higher than even the Centre’s. State finances have increasingly become a crucial lynchpin of India’s fiscal framework. Many State governments have adopted State-level fiscal laws and adhered to the 3% fiscal target under the State-level FRBMs. However the recent report of the Reserve Bank, State Finances: A Study of Budgets 2016-17, has some worrying conclusions. The combined deficit of the States reached 3.6% of GDP in FY16, significantly higher than 2.6% in the previous year. This significantly breaches the 3% fiscal deficit stipulated by the States themselves in their FRBMs. As a consequence, the consolidated fiscal deficit of the Central government will increase from 6.7% in FY15 to 7.5% in FY16. Debt is considered sustainable if debt-GDP ratio is stable or on a declining path. This is a necessary condition for solvency of any government’s finances. The debt ratio for the States under status quo and present FRBM scenarios is actually projected to increase. This is mainly because the primary deficit, a driving variable in debt dynamics, is much higher for the States compared to the Centre. The Centre’s primary deficit according to the RBI report is 0.7% of GDP while that of the States is close to 2% of GDP.

Given the increased foreign holdings of Indian government bonds, a worsening of State finances will dent India’s credibility among foreign institutional investors. The rise in government bond yield of State government securities would increase the interest burden on new debt and also for the old debt which are re-priced. Such a scenario could make State debt more explosive. Indeed, the yields of State government debt have increased, remaining higher than the Central government securities and with the spread showing a rising trend. An ameliorating factor for the States is that the revenue deficit for the Centre is 2.5% of GDP compared to 0.2% for the States. Thus while the Centre borrows largely for revenue spending and current consumption like wages, salaries, the States do so for capital expenditure like infrastructure. This is despite the fact that delivering public services which are growth enhancing, such as health and education, is the prime responsibility of the States. Although composite State finances are useful to analyse, there are marked variations across States. States like Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Maharashtra have significantly lower fiscal deficit, with more intensive tax efforts, than States like Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, which collect lower tax and are fiscally less prudent. Despite significant variations across States in the degree of fiscal prudence, there is little correlation between State government yields and fiscal deficits. Yields have no relationship to State fiscal prudence. Perhaps this is on account of the implicit guarantee by the sovereign. The implicit sovereign guarantee, however, cannot explain why State bonds consistently trade above Central government Gsecs, and the spread may, in fact, suggest the additional credit risk associated with State bonds.

Borrowings by States are likely to increase sharply due to interest of UDAY bonds, and more importantly, the viral of farm loans waivers. With little compensatory action, this will seriously undercut the hard-won battle to secure fiscal prudence for the country as a whole. We must recognise that macroeconomic stability is contingent on the fiscal position of the general government. The Central government has pursued fiscal prudence against many odds. Unchecked profligacy by States can undermine the overall macro stability. There are three short-term steps. First, we must improve the due diligence by the Central government in giving consent to borrowings by States under Article 293 of the Constitution. Unfortunately, there is some lack of coordination within the Ministry of Finance itself. Approvals for State government borrowings are accorded by the State Plan Division with little coordination with the Budget Division, which monitors implementation of FRBM obligations. A more stringent criteria in approving borrowings for States which deviate from stipulated fiscal norms is urgently needed. The criteria must be transparent and apolitical in character. Second, whenever the Central government breaches the fiscal norms, it secures parliamentary approval. State governments must be encouraged to adopt a similar practice by securing the approval of the State Legislature. Third, regulatory measures can be devised to enable bond yields to be responsive to market signals and bridge the information asymmetry between markets and State finances of the concerned State governments. Finally the 15th Finance Commission must restore adherence to fiscal norms as an important ingredient in the devolution formula. This also implies inter se distributional burden among the States themselves.

1) According to the passage which of the following conclusions given below are mentioned in the recent report of the Reserve Bank, State Finances?

  1. The combined deficit of the States reached 3.6% of GDP in FY16 higher than the previous year.
  2. The revenue deficit for the Centre is 2.5% of GDP compared to 0.2% for the States.
  3. The consolidated fiscal deficit of the Central government will increase from 6.7% in FY15 to 7.5% in FY16

a) i and ii

b) Only iii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

2) According to the passage which of the following given statements are mentioned as a steps to check expenditure in order to balance macro stability?

  1. There is need to improve the assiduity by the Central government in giving approval to borrowings by States
  2. Whenever the Central government transgresses the fiscal norms, it secures parliamentary approval, state governments must be encouraged to adopt the same.
  3. There is need to formulate regulatory measures to enable bond yields to be responsive to market signals and bridge the information asymmetry between markets and State finances.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) Only i& ii

e) All of these

3) Which of the following given statements is mentioned correct about debt-GDP ratio in the passage?

  1. Debt is considered sustainable if debt-GDP ratio is stable or on a declining path.
  2. The debt ratio for the States under status quo and present FRBM scenarios is actually projected to increase
  3. The change in debt to GDP is decrease in debt as percentage of GDP.

a) Only ii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

4) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. The 15th Finance Commission must restore cohesion to fiscal norms as an important ingredient in the devolution formula
  2. Borrowings by States are likely to decrease sharply due to interest of UDAY bonds.
  3. Approvals for State government borrowings are conceded by the State Plan Division with little coordination with the Budget Division

a) i and iii

b) Only ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

5) According to the passage which of the following given condition is necessary for solvency of any government’s finances?

a) Variances in composite State finances across states.

b) The rise in government bond yield of State government securities

c) Debt-GDP ratio is stable or on a declining path.

d) Increased foreign holdings of Indian government bonds

e) None of these

6) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra have significantly higher fiscal deficit than States like Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand.
  2. The Centre’s primary deficit according to the RBI report is 0.7% of GDP
  3.  The higher combined deficit breaches the 3% fiscal deficit stipulated by the States themselves in their FRBMs.

a) ii and iii

b) Only i

c) i and ii

d) i and iii

e) None of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “stringent” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Pliable

b) Formative

c) Lenient

d) Rigorous

e) Tensile

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “eluded” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Entice

b) Confront

c) Circumvent

d) Accost

e) Resist

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “profligacy” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Extravagance

b) Absurdity

c) Dissipation

d) Profusion

e) Frugality

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “prudent” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Abstemious

b) Reckless

c) Discreet

d) Shrewd

e) Vigilant

Directions (11-15): Each sentence below has one or two blanks, each blank indicating that something has been omitted. Below the sentence are five sets of words. Choose the set of words for each blank that best fits the meaning of the sentence as a whole.

11) Demonetization may have been aimed at _______ out black money but ________ dependency on the Rs 2,000 note ignores an age-old heuristic for currency management.

a) Dislocating, bolster

b) Segregated, sustaining

c) Weeding, perpetuating

d) Wrenching, eternized

e) Spraining, exonerating

12) Officials in London ________ that it will be impossible to make transition legally watertight, but its principles should be clear enough to______ businesses such as airlines that must plan a year ahead

a) Capitulated, relieve

b) Relinquish, inspiriting

c) Waived, brace

d) Concede, reassure

e) Repudiate, validate

13) Social media allow teenagers______ for contact with peers to be _______ with parents desire to keep their offspring safe and away from harmful substances.

a) Craving, squared

b) Yearned, accorded

c) Hankering, reconcile

d) Longing, dovetail

e) Inclined, corresponding

14) Regulations have ______ paternalistic obligations onto owners of large tea plantations, these _______ the number of workers and provide their families with schools, health care, subsidized food, and electricity.

a) Accumulated, behests

b) Hoarded, dictated

c) Summon, precept

d) Convoked, breach

e) Heaped, mandate

15) The need for formal records, along with high interest rates, ______ smaller firms from ______ banks altogether; in turn, they remain locked into the informal sector.

a) Intimidate, advent

b) Deter, approaching

c) Obviated, looming

d) Preclude, ingress

e) Debarred, accessing

Direction (16-20): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a), b), c), d)Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences

16) Roll up

  1. I rolled the poster up and put it back in its mailing tube
  2. Jinni should roll another coat of paint up this wall over here.
  3. The celebrity rolled up to the theater in a white limousine.
  4. The pastry chef rolled the dough up.

a) ii and iv

b) i and ii

c) iii and iv

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

17) Take after

  1. She takes after her grandfather in her talent for design
  2. Don’t take after your older sister, she’s a bad influence.
  3. The committee took after my budget as being too wasteful.
  4. I’m going to take you after in this fight.

a) iii and iv

b) i and ii

c) ii and iv

d) All except iii

e) All are correct

18) Float around

  1. I can’t find my purse, but it must be floating around here somewhere.
  2. Empty bottles and other debris float around in the cove at low tide.
  3. The travelers floated around the countryside
  4. Water hyacinths floated around, making a very tropical scene.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) ii and iii

d) i and iv

e) All are correct

19) Queue up

  1. There are a growing number of countries queuing up for membership
  2. The couple was just queuing up one another over the bill.
  3. The customers queued up at the ticket booth.
  4. We’ll queue the applicants up and interview them one at a time.

a) ii and iii

b) i and iv

c) iii and iv

d) All except ii

e) All are correct

20) Blow up

  1. I think I’ll blow myself up a fancy dessert.
  2. My dad blew up at me when he saw the bill.
  3. The dynamite blew up the abandoned building.
  4. My friend tonight blew me up dinner, which was a nice treat.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) ii and iii

d) i and iv

e) All are correct

Answers:

1). Correct Answer is: d)

It is mentioned in the para 1- However the recent report of the Reserve Bank, State Finances: A Study of Budgets 2016-17, has some worrying conclusions. The combined deficit of the States reached 3.6% of GDP in FY16, significantly higher than 2.6% in the previous year. As a consequence, the consolidated fiscal deficit of the Central government will increase from 6.7% in FY15 to 7.5% in FY16.

2). Correct Answer is: e)

It is mentioned in the para 3- There are three short-term steps. First, we must improve the due diligence by the Central government in giving consent to borrowings by States under Article 293 of the Constitution. Second, whenever the Central government breaches the fiscal norms, it secures parliamentary approval. State governments must be encouraged to adopt a similar practice by securing the approval of the State Legislature. Third, regulatory measures can be devised to enable bond yields to be responsive to market signals and bridge the information asymmetry between markets and State finances of the concerned State governments

3). Correct Answer is: b)

It is mentioned in the para 1- Debt is considered sustainable if debt-GDP ratio is stable or on a declining path. This is a necessary condition for solvency of any government’s finances. The debt ratio for the States under status quo and present FRBM scenarios is actually projected to increase.

4). Correct Answer is: a)

It is mentioned in the para 3- Finally the 15th Finance Commission must restore adherence to fiscal norms as an important ingredient in the devolution formula. Borrowings by States are likely to increase sharply due to interest of UDAY bonds, and more importantly, the viral of farm loans waivers. Approvals for State government borrowings are accorded by the State Plan Division with little coordination with the Budget Division, which monitors implementation of FRBM obligations.

5). Correct Answer is: c)

It is mentioned in the para 1- Debt is considered sustainable if debt-GDP ratio is stable or on a declining path. This is a necessary condition for solvency of any government’s finances.

6). Correct Answer is: b)

It is clearly mentioned in the para 1&2- The Centre’s primary deficit according to the RBI report is 0.7% of GDP while that of the States is close to 2% of GDP. The combined deficit of the States reached 3.6% of GDP in FY16, significantly higher than 2.6% in the previous year. This significantly breaches the 3% fiscal deficit stipulated by the States themselves in their FRBMs. States like Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Maharashtra have significantly lower fiscal deficit, with more intensive tax efforts, than States like Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand, which collect lower tax

7). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of stringent is strict or rigid (of regulations, requirements, or conditions)

8). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of eluded is to escape from or avoid a danger or enemy

9). Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of profligacy is wastefulness in the use of resources or overspending

10). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of prudent is sensible in action and thought

Directions (11-15):

11). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “weeding” is “remove an inferior or unwanted component of a group or collection” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “perpetuating” is “to continue or extend” so it is appropriate for ii blank.

12). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “concede” is “to admit that something is true after first denying it” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “reassure” is “to guarantee or put someone at ease” so it is appropriate for ii blank

13). Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “craving” is “a powerful desire for something” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “squared” is “to correspond or agree with something” so it is appropriate for ii blank

14). Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “heaped” is “to confer on or amassed” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “mandate” is “an official order or commission to do something” so it is appropriate for ii blank

15). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “deter” is “put a stop to or prevent the occurrence of something” and it is suitable for i blanks and the meaning of “approaching” is “proceed towards or arrive at” so it is appropriate for ii blank

Direction (16-20):

16). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “roll up” is to arrive in a vehicle or to coil or rotate something and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences

17). Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “take after” is to follow someone/something or to resemble someone especially a parent and the phrase has been applied properly in i and ii sentences

18). Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “float around” is to be or move in an unknown location or to float from here to there freely and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences

19). Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “queue up” is to form an ordered sequence or line or line up something and the phrase has been applied properly in i, iii and iv sentences

20). Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “blow up” is to burst into anger or to destroy something or someone by explosion and the phrase has been applied properly in ii and iii sentences

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Topic Daily Publishing Time
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Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
General Awareness “20-20” 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM

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