SBI PO Prelims English Preparation Questions 2019 (Day-32)

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Directions (1-5): In the passage below, there are a few words given in bold. Choose the appropriate synonyms of the given word among the given options.

There are at least five reasons why India should have sent an observer to the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Forum that begins in Beijing on April 25.

First, the defining feature of the 21st century is that Asia, not China, is at the centre of the world. The BRI is part of a transformation triggered (1) by colonialism and industrial capitalism from the 1840s and influenced by the UN institutions and global rules from the 1950s. Of the estimated $30 trillion increase in middle-class consumption(2) growth estimated by 2030, only $1 trillion is expected to come from Western economies and most of the rest from Asia. China’s population is nearly one-third of the total population of Asia but by 2050 its population of working age will shrink by 200 million people while in India the working-age population will increase by 200 million. Asians are not subscribing to a “China-led Asia”, which would imply returning to the colonial (3) order.

Second, the global spread of the BRI signals the political end of the old order where the G7 shaped the economic agenda (4). Italy, a member of the G7, is joining the BRI, despite the publicly voiced objection of the U.S., just as Britain joined the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank in 2015. Asians are gravitating to the new as it better meets their needs, not because the old is crumbling (5).

1)

a) decelerated

b) actuated

c) halted

d) stunted

e) none

2)

a) deplorable

b) depletion

c) deployment

d) conservation

e) none

3)

a) autonomous

b) independent

c) liberated

d) dependent

e) none

4)

a) schedule

b) nadir

c) rythm

d) dainty

e) none

5)

a) ameliorating

b) upgrading

c) enhancement

d) degenerating

e) none

Directions (6-10): In the passage below, there are a few words given in bold. Choose the appropriate antonyms of the given word among the given options.

The U.S. has begun trade skirmishes (6) with India. It objects to India increasing import duties on electronic goods and wants India to reduce duties on U.S.-made motorcycles. Meanwhile the World Trade Organization seems to be in the intensive care unit. It is time to apply fundamental principles to reshape a trade regime that is fair to all.

The macro-economic case for free trade is that if each person would do only what he or she does better than everyone else and all would trade with each other, everyone’s welfare will increase. Also, the size of the global economic pie would be larger because there will be no inefficiencies. The problem is that, at present, many people in the world are doing what others, in other countries, can do better than them. To get to the economists’ ideal state, many people will have to stop doing what they are doing and learn to do something else.

Dani Rodrik has estimated that for every unit of overall increase in global income, six or seven units of incomes will have to be shuffled (7) around within. Moreover, according to this theory, people should not start producing what others are already producing, because they will produce less efficiently until they learn to do it well. According to this theory of free trade, Indians should not have bothered to learn how to produce trucks, buses and two-wheelers when the country became independent. They should have continued to import them from American, European and Japanese companies.

Free trade purists (8) say that easy import of products from other countries increases consumer welfare. Consumers everywhere welcome a lowering of import barriers because it brings products into their shops they could only dream of before. Milton Friedman had observed that, in international trade, exports help companies and imports help citizens. Therefore, resistance (9) to free trade does not come from consumers. It generally comes from companies which cannot compete: companies in less developed countries which are not able to compete until their country’s infrastructure is improved and they have acquired sufficient capabilities, or even from companies in developed countries when producers in developing countries overtake(10) them.

6)

a) tussle

b) scrimmage

c) affray

d) empathy

e) none

7)

a) agglomerate

b) potpourri

c) candor

d) intermix

e) none

8)

a) doctrinaire

b) jingoist

c) dogmatic

d) liberal

e) none

9)

a) acquiescence

b) opposition

c) objection

d) defiance

e) none

10)

a) catch up

b) lag

c) overhaul

d) surpass

e) none

Answers :

Directions (1-5):

1) Answer: b)

Actuated means to activate or accelerate some action. Hence, option B is the correct answer here.

2) Answer: b)

Choice B) is the most similar to given word here. Others do not fit suitable.

3) Answer: d)

Other given choices are the antonyms of the given word. So, only option D is correct.

4) Answer: a)

The given choice is the synonym of the given word, whereas others are not.

5) Answer:d)

Ameliorating means to make better. Here Degenerating is synonymous to the given word.

Directions (6-10):

6) Answer: d)

The other choices are synonyms to the given word. Hence option D is correct.

7) Answer: c)

Candor means being free from prejudice. Hence C) is the most opposite choice here.

8) Answer: d)

Purist is a person who has very strong ideas about what is correct or acceptable and who usually opposes changes to traditional methods and practices.

9) Answer: a)

Acquiescence is the passive submission or acceptance of something.

10) Answer: b)

Other options are synonymous to the given word. Only option D is the antonym here.

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