Dear Readers, Here we have given Practice English Reading Comprehension quiz and questions for SBI Clerk 2018 Exams with detailed explanation. Candidates those who are preparing for Upcoming Bank Exams can make use of it.
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Directions (1-10): Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions.
Expansion of employment opportunities has been an important objective of development planning in India. There has been a significant growth in employment over the years. However, a relatively higher growth of population or labour force has led to an increase in the volume of unemployment from one plan period to another. The Thirteenth Five Year Plan aims at bringing employment into a sharper focus in a medium-term perspective with the goal of reducing unemployment to negligible level within the next ten years. Such an approach is now considered necessary also because it is realized that larger and efficient use of available human resources is the most effective way of poverty alleviation, reduction in inequalities and sustenance of a reasonably high pace of economic growth.
While approaching employment as an objective of the Plan, employment generation and economic growth are to be treated as mutually complementary rather than conflicting processes. Employment has to be generated in the process of economic growth and it should contribute to the acceleration of, economic growth. Employment, to be gainful and sustainable, has, therefore, to be productive in character, it should be able to yield a reasonable level of income to the worker and also generate surplus for further growth.
Improvement in the productivity of work-force assumes particular significance in our economy where low productivity and low incomes of a large mass of employed persons constitute a problem of much higher dimensions than unemployment, measured conventionally in terms of involuntary idleness. Incidence of invisible unemployment or underemployment is a situation of work with very low levels of productivity and income. This phenomenon is likely to be more marked in a situation of rapidly changing technologies and work organisation. It would also, therefore, be necessary to intervene on the supply side of the labour market with a view to improving the employability of workers in general, and promoting such institutional structures and arrangements for training and skill up gradation which could speedily respond to rapidly changing requirements of productive activities, in particular.
There will always be some level of unemployment, even in a healthy economy. This lowest level of unemployment is natural unemployment. Cyclical unemployment is caused by the contraction phase of the business cycle. That’s when demand for goods and services fall dramatically, forcing businesses to lay off large numbers of workers to cut costs. Cyclical unemployment tends to create more unemployment. This is because the laid-off workers have less money to buy the things they need, further lowering demand. Frictional unemployment is when workers leave their old jobs but haven’t yet found new ones. Frictional unemployment is short-term and a natural part of the job search process. In fact, frictional unemployment is good for the economy, as it allows workers to move to jobs where they can be more productive. Structural unemployment is when shifts occur in the economy that creates a mismatch between the skills workers have and the skills needed by employers. A long recession often creates structural unemployment. If workers stay unemployed for too long, their skills have likely become outdated. Seasonal unemployment results from regular changes in the season. Classical unemployment is also known as “real wage unemployment” or “induced unemployment.” It’s when wages are higher than the laws of supply and demand would normally dictate.
Unemployment is a reason for alarming concern in India today. The root of the problem can be traced to a host of reasons that contributes collectively towards this problem.
India’s GDP projections for year 2018 is 7.5% but that growth does not currently translates into creating more employment opportunities for the labour force of the country. On the other hand, literacy rates have raised in the last few decades, there still remains a fundamental flaw in the education system in India. The curriculum is mostly theory-oriented and fails to provide vocational training required to match up with current economic environment. Rapid growth of population is the major reason for increasing unemployment in the country. The five-year plans implemented by the government have not contributed proportionately towards generation of employment. The assumption was that growth in economy will automatically generate enough employment. But in reality the scenario doesn’t quite match up to the assumption.
Unemployment casts some short term ripples throughout the economy by reducing an individual’s contribution in terms of services and taxes. The unemployed also does not possess the power of purchase, thus in effect contributing to bringing down demand of goods in the market and creating more unemployment. This vicious cycle creates a cascading effect throughout the economy and trickles down to different social strata.
1) According to the passage, which of the following types of unemployment has been indicated as good sign?
a) natural unemployment
b) classical unemployment
c) cyclical unemployment
d) structural unemployment
e) frictional unemployment
2) According to the passage, which of the followings will not be counted as the cause of unemployment in India?
a) faulty education system
b) population growth
c) economic growth with inadequate employment opportunities
d) slow industrialization
e) faulty employment planning
3) According to the passage, what is the most effective way of reducing poverty?
a) equal distribution of income and wealth
b) effective government policies
c) proper distribution of factor of production
d) efficient use of human resources
e) effective education system
4) According to the passage, which of the followings is more complex situation?
b) cyclic unemployment
d) seasonal unemployment
e) long term unemployment
5) Which of the following statements is true in the context of the passage?
a) India’s GDP projections for year 2018 is 5.7%
b) The five-year plans implemented by the government have not contributed proportionately towards generation of employment.
c) Cyclic unemployment is also known as real wages unemployment.
d) None of the above
e) All are true
6) Find the incorrect statement on the basis of the given passage.
a) Employment should generate the surplus for future growth.
b) Structural unemployment is caused when there is mismatch between the skills workers have and the skills needed by employers.
c) Unemployment casts the long term ripple throughout the economy.
d) Unemployed person does not possess the power of purchase.
e) All are correct
7) Choose the word which as same meaning as the word alleviation
8) Choose the word which as same meaning as the word vicious
9) Choose the word which as opposite meaning as the word recession
10) Choose the word which as opposite meaning as the word conflicting
1. Correct Answer is: e)
According to the passage, frictional unemployment is good for the economy, because it allows workers to move to jobs where they can be more productive.
2. Correct Answer is: d)
“Slow industrialization” has not been mentioned as a cause of unemployment in the passage.
3. Correct Answer is: d)
It is mentioned in the passage, that efficient use of available human resources is the effective way of reducing poverty.
4. Correct Answer is: c)
According to the passage, the problem of underemployment is more difficult to solve as underemployment is a situation of work with very low levels of productivity and income.
5. Correct Answer is: b)
According to the passage, true statement is “the five-year plans implemented by the government have not contributed proportionately towards generation of employment”.
6. Correct Answer is: c)
It is mentioned in the passage that the unemployment casts short term ripple through out the economy by reducing an individual’s contribution in terms of services and taxes.
7. Correct Answer is: c)
The meaning of “alleviation” is “abatement / decrease/diminishing”
8. Correct Answer is: d)
The meaning of “recession” is “depression / glumness” and its opposite is “glee / delight”.
9. Correct Answer is: d)
The meaning of “recession” is “depression / glumness” and its opposite is “glee / delight”.
10. Correct Answer is: b)
The meaning of “conflicting” is “opposing / contradictory” and its opposite is “consistent / reliable”.
Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck
|Topic||Daily Publishing Time|
|Daily News Papers & Editorials||8.00 AM|
|Current Affairs Quiz||9.00 AM|
|Logical Reasoning||10.00 AM|
|Quantitative Aptitude “20-20”||11.00 AM|
|Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu)||12.00 PM|
|Static GK Quiz||1.00 PM|
|English Language “20-20”||2.00 PM|
|Banking Awareness Quiz||3.00 PM|
|Reasoning Puzzles & Seating||4.00 PM|
|Daily Current Affairs Updates||5.00 PM|
|Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise)||6.00 PM|
|Reasoning Ability “20-20”||7.00 PM|
|English Language (New Pattern Questions)||8.00 PM|
|General / Financial Awareness Quiz||9.00 PM|