English Reading Comprehension with Detailed Explanation – IBPS, SSC Exams (Day-25):
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(Directions 1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Liberal democracies do have specific limits on specific freedoms. There are various legal limitations such as copyright and laws against defamation. There may be limits on anti-democratic speech, on attempts to undermine human rights and on the promotion or justification of terrorism. In the United States more than in Europe, during the Cold War, such restrictions applied to Communists. Now they are more commonly applied to organizations perceived as promoting terrorism or the incitement of group hatred. Examples include anti-terrorism legislation, the shutting down of Hezbollah satellite broadcasts and some laws against hate speech. Critics claim that these limitations may go too far and that there may be no due and fair judicial process.
The common justification for these limits is that they are necessary to guarantee the existence of democracy, or the existence of the freedoms themselves. For example, allowing free speech for those advocating mass murder undermines the right to life and security. Opinion is divided on how far democracy can extend to include the enemies of democracy in the democratic process. If relatively small numbers of people are excluded from such freedoms for these reasons, a country may still be seen as a liberal democracy. Some argue that this is only quantitatively (not qualitatively) different from autocracies that persecute opponents, since only a small number of people are affected and the restrictions are less severe. Others emphasize that democracies are different. At least in theory, opponents of democracy are also allowed due process under the rule of law. In principle, democracies allow criticism and change of the leaders and the political and economic system itself; it is only attempts to do so violently and the promotions of such violence that is prohibited.
However, many governments considered to be democratic have restrictions upon expressions considered anti-democratic, such as Holocaust denial and hate speech. Members of political organizations with connections to prior totalitarianism, parties prohibited and current or former members of such organizations may be deprived of the vote and the privilege of holding certain jobs. Discriminatory behaviour may be prohibited, such as refusal by owners of public accommodations to serve persons on grounds of race, religion, ethnicity, gender or sexual orientation.
Other rights considered fundamental by one’s country’s population may be foreign to other countries’ populations. For instance, many Americans consider gun rights and freedom from Double Jeopardy to be important rights, while people from other countries do not recognize them as fundamental rights.
- Which of the following statements can be inferred about the author?
- He supports legal, social and political freedom without restrictions.
- He opposes liberal democracy.
- He supports liberal democracy.
- He supports illiberal democracy.
- He merely describes liberal democracy without taking a stance.
- Which of the following can correctly replace the word ‘grounds’ as used in the context of the passage?
- All of the above
- Which of the following statements holds true according to the opponents of the laws of liberal democracies?
- Liberal democracies encourage immoral behaviour.
- Liberal democracies encourage crime.
- Liberal democracies that prosecute “dangerous elements” are little different from autocracies that persecute opponents.
- Liberal democracies supports the voice of the minority.
- Liberal democracies ignore social, religious and natural laws while emphasizing individuality.
- Liberal democracies like the US applied restrictions on which of the followings during Cold War times?
- Members of terrorist organizations
- Holocaust deniers
- Which of the following is most opposite to the word ‘defamation’ as used in the context of the passage?
- Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?
- Americans prefer greater freedom and lesser restrictions compared with people in other countries.
- The USA has strict gun laws.
- The USA has very liberal gun laws.
- European countries fear anarchy and bloodshed if gun laws are liberalized.
- None of the above.
- Which one of the followings is the main idea expressed in the passage?
- Liberal democracies flourish due to their inherent respect or freedom and human rights.
- Liberal democracies are liberal only in name but not in deed.
- Liberal democracies uphold values that are universal and absolute.
- Liberal democracies usually uphold individual freedoms with certain restrictions.
- None of the above.
- Which of the following can correctly replace the word ‘undermines’ as used in the context of the passage?
- Which of the following is most opposite to the word ‘denial’ as used in the context of the passage?
- Who were the first to lay the foundations of liberal democracy?
- The Greeks
- The Romans
- Western countries post World War II
- European intellectuals
- Data insufficient or unavailable