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Directions (1-10): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 1 to 10. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning.
Sri Lankan President Maithripala Sirisena has (1) ___________Parliament after it became evident that Mahinda Rajapaksa, who he had appointed Prime Minister two weeks ago, did not (2) ___________a legislative majority. It is an act of desperation to prevent a likely loss of face for both leaders after Mr. Sirisena’s controversial (3)___________of Ranil Wickremesinghe as Prime Minister on October 26. Sri Lanka has been (4)___________by political uncertainty ever since lawmakers of Mr. Sirisena’s party withdrew support from the ‘national unity government’ to (5)___________Mr. Wickremesinghe’s removal and the swearing-in of Mr. Rajapaksa in his place. With many parties questioning the legality of the dismissal,the President suspended Parliament. This was a move to buy Mr. Rajapaksa time to (6)___________support through defections. With around 100 MPs each in the 225 member House, both rival camps claimed they had the majority. But a 15 member alliance of Tamil MPs and six Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna lawmakers refused to support the newly installed (7)___________, and Mr. Rajapaksa’s continuance became untenable. The President had to ask him to face possible defeat in a floor test or call elections as a (8)___________. He has chosen the latter. However, a(9)___________in the Constitution, introduced through the19th Amendment by the Sirisena Wickremesinghe administration in 2015, stipulates that the House cannot be dissolved for four and a half years after a parliamentary election, unless two thirds of its total membership seeks (10)___________through a resolution. Mr. Sirisena’s action has come in the face of this restriction.
Directions (11-15): Choose one of the words from the given options which makes sentence incorrect such that it changes the whole meaning of the sentence.
11) Promising(A)a host of people focused policies and a foreign policy formulated(B)on the basis of human rights,democracy and climate diplomacy, the Maldives’s new President, Ibrahim Solih,sought(C)to turn a new page in the country’s politics at a glittering inaugural ceremony(D).
b) C- shunned
d) A- assuring
e) None of these
12) The first phase(A) of panchayat election in Jammu & Kashmir on Saturday recorded(B)a 74.1% voter turnout (C), with the Kashmir Valley clocking 62.1%, a quantum (D) jump from the civic election percent age of 35.1 just 30 days ago.
b) B- documented
c) D- minor
e) None of these
13) Immediately(A)after the swearing in ceremony,which was held in a packed Rasmee Dhandu Stadium,Mr. Solih held a meeting(B)with Mr. Modi, which sources said was a special gesture(C)toward India, as indeed was the fact that India was the only country that the new President mentioned(D) in his speech.
e) None of these
14) Tireless (A) fossil hunting under the scorching (B) heat of the Kutch basin, Gujarat proved fruitful (C) and paleontologists unearthed (D) a fossilised upper jaw (maxilla).
e) None of these
15) Birds perceive (A) people near their nests as potential predators (B), suggesting that they can react (C) to people based on the context (D), shows a recent study published in the journal.
e) None of these
Direction (16-25): Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions.
Despite being one of the fastest growing economies in the world, India has been ranked at 103 out of 119 countries, with hunger levels categorised as “serious”, in the Global Hunger Index 2018. Strikingly, in July, three girls died of starvation resulting from prolonged malnutrition in the national capital Delhi, which has a high per capita income. India’s child malnourishment level is not only the highest in the world but varies considerably across States. As per the National Family Health Survey-2016, the proportion of stunted (low height for age) children under five is significantly higher (38.4%) than global (22.9%) averages. The underweight (low weight for age) children rate (35.7%) is a lot higher than the global average (13.5%) too. India is home to over 53.3 million stunted, 49.6 million underweight and 29.2 million wasted (low weight for height) children under five.
Growing prosperity has hardly made any significant dent in chronic malnutrition of children. Faster economic growth has enormous benefits, but it is by no means sufficient and sustainable if millions of children remain undernourished, as it not only impacts early childhood health and imposes disease burden but also affects education, wages and productivity when they grow up, which will impact India’s growth. Where does the solution lie?
One problem lies with the current thinking of growth-oriented development. No doubt, the low income and Empowered-Action-Group (EAG) States face major challenges to improve malnutrition, but, two EAG States, Chhattisgarh and Odisha, have performed better on this front compared to Gujarat and Maharashtra where per capita income is almost double.
The development path prevalent in Gujarat is more about growth and investment, which, however, has not been able to translate as better nutritional status in the State. Odisha, which is a low income State, has a better network of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), public health facility/workforce per lakh population and educational attainment among women, which have translated into a better nutritional status when compared with Gujarat. Further, tribals, rural, poor and illiterate mothers’ children are badly off in so-called developed States of Haryana, Gujarat and Punjab. These groups are also affected in poorer States of U.P., Bihar, Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh. Around two-thirds of stunted/underweight children are from 200 districts of both less developed and developed States.
Another prominent idea is the need to link agriculture and nutrition, as agriculture provides answers to most nutrition problems. Our estimates, however, show malnutrition continues to be high in agricultural surplus States like Haryana (34% stunting and 29.5% underweight). Worryingly, malnutrition in some of its agriculturally-developed districts (Karnal, Panipat, Sonipat, Rohtak as well as in Gurugram) is even higher than the average of Odisha. Recently, Madhya Pradesh has registered double-digit growth in food grain production making it one of the wheat granaries of India, but acute malnutrition is still critical in most of its districts with a high proportion of underweight (42.8%) and stunted children (41.9%).
To understand the contradiction between agrarian plenty and malnutrition, let us take the example of diversified food. With the increase in diversity in food intake, measured through Food Intake Index using 19 food items in all 640 districts, malnutrition (stunted/underweight) status declines. Only 12% of children are likely to be stunted and underweight in areas where diversity in food intake is high, while around 50% children are stunted if they consume less than three food items.
A majority of children across districts in Tamil Nadu consume a reasonably highly diversified food, leading to lower percentage of stunted/underweight children across districts. Children in a majority of districts in West Bengal, Odisha, Kerala and Karnataka consume mediocre level of food items and malnutrition is relatively lower than in Rajasthan, U.P., Jharkhand, M.P., Gujarat, Bihar and Haryana (children in many of their districts consume less diversified food). The diversified food intake is very low in a majority of Indian districts; just 28% of children consumed over five items of the total 19 food items.
An inclusive and holistic approach, including controlling/regulating food price, strengthening the public distribution system (PDS) and income support policies for making food cheaper are important steps. The ICDS was a high impact nutrition intervention, but its universal availability and quality are questionable due to poor functioning. The government must broaden the ICDS program by ensuring diversity in food items in worst-hit districts. The launch of the National Nutrition Mission as a strategy to fight maternal and child malnutrition is a welcome step towards achieving the targets of underweight and stunted children under five years from 35.7% to 20.7% and from 38.4% to 25% respectively by 2022. But sustained budgetary commitment towards nutrition components is not sharply visible.
16) According to the passage, which of the following fact is/are true about diversity of food items?
a) Only 12% of children are likely to be stunted and underweight in areas where diversity in food intake is high
b) Around 50% children are stunted if they consume less than three food items
c) Over 28% of children consumed over five items
d) Only a) and b)
e) All are true
17) According to the passage which of the following facts is/ are true about Gujarat?
i. Gujarat has performed exceptionally well in improving the malnutrition.
ii. Gujarat is lagging behind the Odisha in developing network of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS).
iii. Tribals, rural, poor and illiterate mothers’ children are in unpleasant condition in Gujarat.
a) i and ii
b) Only i
c) ii and iii
d) i and iii
e) All are true
18) What are the findings of National Family Health Survey, mentioned in the passage?
i. The proportion of stunted (low height for age) children under five is 22.9% in India
ii. India is home to over 53.3 million stunted, 49.6 million underweight children under five
iii. The underweight children rate is at 13.5% in India
a) All except iii
b) ii and iii
c) Only ii
d) i and iii
e) None of these
19) What impacts are mentioned in passage if children remain undernourished?
a) Education, wages and productivity
b) Children become violent in nature
c) Less diversity of food intake
d) Maternal malnutrition
e) All of these
20) Which of the following contradictions are mentioned in the passage?
i. Contradiction between agrarian plenty and malnutrition
ii. Contradiction between economic growth and malnutrition
iii. Contradiction between malnutrition and high per capita income
a) All are true
b) ii and iii
c) i and ii
d) Only ii
e) None of these
21) Which of the following is/ are described as the important steps to counter the malnutrition?
a) Controlling/regulating food price
b) Strengthening the public distribution system (PDS)
c) Income support policies for making food cheaper
d) Both a) and b)
e) All of the above
22) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “prolonged” printed in bold as used in the passage.
23) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “mediocre” printed in bold as used in the passage.
24) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “chronic” printed in bold as used in the passage.
25) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “prominent” printed in bold as used in the passage.
Direction (26-30): Read each sentence to find out whether there is any grammatical or idiomatic error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number of that part is the answer. If there is ‘No error’, the answer is (e).
26) Andhra Pradesh on Friday withdrew the(A) ‘general consent’ granted to the(B) Central Bureau of Investigation(CBI), effectively curtailed (C)the agency’s powers in the State(D). No Error (E).
27) A recent public interest litigation (PIL) filed at the Nagpur Bench (A)of the Bombay High Court drew the court’s attention to(B) ‘obscene and vulgar’ TV shows being streamed through online portals (C) and sight prescription of some regulatory guidelines (D). No Error (E).
28) In new research studying how genetic(A) factors determine taste, scientists now(B)believe they know why some humans (C)prefer coffee, while other opt for tea(D). No Error (E).
29) In a historic vote, nations(A) on Friday unanimous approved (B)new scientific definitions (C)for the kilogram and other units (D). No Error (E).
30) In a bid to encourage employers, especially (A)in the private sector, to implement the extended 26 week maternity leave law(B), the Labour Ministry plans to refund it for seven weeks’worth of wages(C) for women workers with a wage ceiling up to Rs.15,000 a month(D). No Error (E).
1) Answer: c)
According to the sentence “Dissolved” will be used as it means “to end the parliament”.
2) Answer: d)
According to the sentence “Enjoy” will be used as the sentence says parliament is dissolved because the leader could not get the majority.
3) Answer: b)
According to the sentence “Dismissal” will be used as it means “Sack / Removal”.
4) Answer: c)
According to the sentence “Roiled” will be used as it means “Agitated”.
5) Answer: b)
According to the sentence “Facilitate” will be used as it means Assist / Simplify.
6) Answer: b)
According to the sentence “Garner” will be used as it means “Gather”.
7) Answer: b)
According to the sentence “Regime” will be used as it means “Government”.
8) Answer: d)
According to the sentence “Way out” will be used as it means “solution”.
9) Answer: c)
According to the sentence “Provision” will be used as it means “a clause in a legal instrument”.
10) Answer: a)
According to the sentence “Dissolution” will be used as it means “Suspension”.
11) Answer: b)
C – Shunned which means rejected and is opposite to sought.
12) Answer: c)
D – Minor which means insignificant and is opposite to quantum which means noteworthy.
13) Answer: d)
C – Warning which means threatening and is opposite to special gesture (used in context of the sentence).
14) Answer: a)
D – Buried which means submerged and is opposite to the word unearthed.
15) Answer: e)
E–None of these
16) Answer: e)
All the facts are true.
17) Answer: c)
As per the passage only ii and iii are the right answers so option c) is correct.
18) Answer: c)
As per the passage, option c) (only statement ii) is the correct answer.
19) Answer: a)
Option b) is not mentioned anywhere
Option c)& d) are not an impacts, instead these can be termed as cause of undernourishment
So option a) is the correct answer.
20) Answer: a)
First and second contradictions are explained in two different paragraphs (2 & 6). Whereas, third contradiction is explained in context of Delhi, where three girls died of starvation (malnutrition) despite it being a high per capita income region.
21) Answer: e)
All of the above are true. So option e) is the correct answer.
22) Answer: d)
The meaning of ‘prolonged’ is elongated / extended.
23) Answer: c)
The meaning of mediocre is ordinary.
24) Answer: e)
The meaning of chronic is enduring. So brief will be a near antonym word.
25) Answer: b)
The meaning of prominent is important. So the antonym will be Insignificant.
26) Answer: d)
C- Replace ‘curtailed’ with ‘curtailing’.
27) Answer: c)
D – Replace ‘sight’ with ‘sought’, which is a past tense for seek.
28) Answer: c)
D – Replace ‘other’ with ‘others’ to highlight a group of people who prefer tea.
29) Answer: a)
B -Replace ‘unanimous (adjective)’ with ‘unanimously (adverb)’ to highlight that ‘the approval is in a consistent manner, without any opposition’.
30) Answer: d)
C – Replace ‘it’with ‘them’, as the employers is a plural form.