IBPS RRB PO Mains English Language Questions 2019 (Day-04)

Dear Aspirants, Our IBPS Guide team is providing a new series of English Questions for IBPS RRB PO 2019 so the aspirants can practice it on a daily basis. These questions are framed by our skilled experts after understanding your needs thoroughly. Aspirants can practice these new series questions daily to familiarize with the exact exam pattern and make your preparation effective.

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Directions(1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below.

In the world of climate science and science in general data is king. The more of it you have, and the higher its quality, the better. And while such trends as the rise in temperatures and sea levels have impeccable data behind them, not every measure of a changing climate has been so lucky.Take the global wind and wave climate, for example, which measures trends in wind speed and wave height in oceans around the globe)Both of these factors affect the interplay between the atmosphere and ocean of both energy and carbon (more winds equal choppier waters, which can get in the way of air-to-water energy transfers), and of course higher waves could spell more trouble during storm surges and affect flooding levels. But it had been historically tricky to get reliable long-term data on these phenomena to study any possible trends.

Until now, that is. A paper in Science today uses satellite data to analyze wind speed and wave height over more than 30 years, and concluded that on average both are increasing, especially in the southern hemisphere, and especially during extreme conditions like storms. They also demonstrated a useful way to study these things in the first place, which should prove helpful to scientists moving forward.Why did it take till now to amass and analyze what should be a fairly straightforward dataset? As the paper’s authors explain, it wasn’t that easy. Ocean buoys, “the most obvious data source,” have proven problematic because changes over the years in their construction and instrumentation mean the data they’re spitting out isn’t really consistent in the long term. So it’d be comparing apples to, if not oranges, then at least other kinds of apples  not ideal.

Thus, they turned to the satellite record, which currently runs from 1985 through 2018. Not bad, but the same worries came up there, too: With all the different kinds of hardware and software in space, maybe their data isn’t reliable enough for such research either?So, the authors decided to go in and find out. As you may have surmised by now, it worked out.In particular, they studied the data collected by three kinds of instruments on satellites: altimeters, which measure both wave height and wind speed; radiometers, which measure wind speed; and scatterometers, which measure wind speed and direction.

After cross-checking all the numbers, cross-validating with other satellites and just generally making sure they weren’t being fooled by anything, the authors concluded that these past 30-odd years had seen a strong positive trend in global wind speed, and a weaker (but still noticeable) increase in wave heights. They also noted the trends were much stronger in extreme cases, which they defined as the data from the set’s 90th percentile.Not that any of the actual changes were especially high. Wind speeds went up by about an inch per second every yearabout twice the speed of a garden snail  across the Southern Ocean and south of the equator, where the trends were strongest. The change was about half that in the North Atlantic)(The extreme cases had the same distribution, but with faster speeds, around two inches per second per year.) Things weren’t quite as clear cut for wave height, but there were patches with overall rises of about a tenth of an inch per year, and one surprising spot in the North Pacific with a drop of about half an inch per year.

It might not sound like much, fractions of an inch here or there, but the results do show clear trends for global behaviour over time)Any improvement on ourunderstanding of the global wind and wave climate is helpful, the authors write, since “estimates of future ocean wind and wave states, and whether extreme conditions are changing, are important elements of projections of total sea level.”The team also showed that the satellites can be trusted, since each of the different kinds of instruments, aboard 31 total orbiting satellites, ultimately showed data consistent with each other. This means future studies can ____ on this increasingly rich data set without having to worry about comparing apples to anything else.So not only did the authors add (A)/some specific bits of that all-important data(B)/ to the global climate record, they also made(C)/ it easy for future researchers to do the same.(D)/

1) What is the tone of the passage?

a) Analytical

b) Fear

c) Sad

d) Tentative

e) None of these

2) Which of the following will replace _____ given in the passage

a) Outstand

b) Rely

c) Encourage

d) Present

e) All of the above

3) A sentence in the paragraph is divided into four parts, find if there is error in any part and mark that as your answer

a) D

b) C

c) A

d) B

e) No Error

4) According to the passage the satellite record turned runs from which year?

a) 2002

b) 1975

c) 2019

d) 1985

e) Not mentioned in the passage

5) According to paper in Science today wind speed and wave height on average both are increasing especially in?

a) Eastern Hemisphere

b) Northern Hemisphere

c) Southern Hemisphere

d) Western Hemisphere

e) All of the above

6) Which of the following is appropriate title for the passage?

a) Change in climatic conditions

b) Strong winds and waves

c) Winds and waves in the oceans are getting strong every year

d) Defective data by scientists

e) None of these

7) Which of the following is farthest meaning of the word Impeccable mentioned in the passage?

a) Exemplary

b) Imperfect

c) Untarnished

d) Virtuous

e) All of the above

8) Which of the following is closest meaning of the word Choppier mentioned in the passage?

a) Rough

b) Turbulent

c) Heavy

d) Stormy

e) All of the above

9) Which of the following is farthest meaning of the word Consistent mentioned in the passage?

a) Irregular

b) Uniform

c) Homogeneous

d) Harmonious

e) All of the above

10) Which of the following is closest meaning of the word Surmised mentioned in the passage?

a) Follow

b) Initiate

c) Gather

d) Conjecture

e) None of these

Answers:

1) Answer: a)

As the author explained the passage with some examples and some surveys which shows his reasoning and analytical attitude Option c will be appropriate title for the passage.

2) Answer: b)

Rely: Depend on with full trust or confidence

3) Answer: a)

Here there is comparison between present researchers and future researchers hence easy should be replaced with easier.

4) Answer: d)

Refer: Thus, they turned to the satellite record, which currently runs from 1985 through 2018.

5) Answer: c)

Refer: A paper in Science today uses satellite data to analyze wind speed and wave height over more than 30 years, and concluded that on average both are increasing, especially in the southern hemisphere

6) Answer: c)

As the author explains that winds and waves intensity is increasing by taking old data as reference and also with help of researches done by scientists he concludes that winds and waves in oceans are slightly becoming strong Option C will be appropriate title for the passage.

7) Answer: b)

Impeccable: Faultless

8) Answer: e)

Choppier: Having many small waves and jerk quality

9) Answer: a)

Consistent: Unchanging in nature or effect over time

10) Answer: d)

Surmised: Guess something is true without having evidence to confirm it.

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