Important Computer Awareness Materials (Day-17) – Computer Architecture:
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Computer architecture defines the components and the relationship between them. It also describes how different components interact with software to form a computer system.
The best known computer architecture is known as “John Von Architecture” or “Princeton Architecture”, introduced in 1948 by John Von Neumann. This architecture is still used by most of the computers today. Here is the diagram of Architecture.
A basic computer system consists of the following components:-
Central processing unit is that core element of a computer system that carries out instructions of a computer program by performing basic arithmetic, logical, control and I/O operations.
Every computer has 2 types of main memories – RAM and ROM
Random Access Memory can be read and written to anytime the CPU instructs it. Contents of RAM are erased when the computer is turned off whereas Read Only Memory is pre-loaded with data and software that never changes. ROM is typically used to store computer’s initial start up instructions.
- I/O unit:
I/P refers to the communication between a computer and outer world. Input are signals/data received by system and Output are signals sent by it. Peripheral devices provide input/output to the system. Peripherals include input devices like keyboard, mouse and output devices like display screen or printer. Hard disk and optical disk devices act as both input and output devices.
- Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU):
It is the most important component of a microprocessor that performs the arithmetical and logical operations like AND, OR, NAND, NOR, Addition and Subtraction.
- Control Unit:
Its the circuit that controls the flow of information through processor and coordinates the activities of other units within it. With a regular processor, control unit performs tasks of fetching, decoding, managing execution and storing results.
- Register Sets:
Register sets temporarily store data and program codes until they are sent to ALU or control section. More registers per cpu results in programming tasks easily. Registers are measured by no of bits i.e 8 bit, 16 bit, 32 bit.
It is the main Printed circuit board mounted the CPU. It is also known as Logic Board, Planar board and System Board. It is found in general purpose as well as special purpose systems. It allows communication between different components of the system such as memory, CPU, and other peripherals. It uses different buses to connect dif7fe/5r3ent components.
A bus is a set of wires used to connect different components of the system so that data/information can move from one component to other component, where each wire can carry only a single bit.
There are two types of BUS according to connectivity:-
1) Internal Bus – It is also known as system bus, local bus, front side bus or Memory bus. It connects all the internal components such as CPU and memory to the motherboard. It is also known as local bus as they are intended to connect local
2) External Bus – It is also known as the expansion bus. It connects different external components like peripherals, expansion slots, I/O Port and drive connections to the rest of the computer.
There are three types of bus according to their work:-
1) Data Bus- The data that is to be transferred is carried by data
2) Address Bus– The addresses of I/O devices and memory is carried by address bus
3) Control bus– The instructions/commands to access the memory or I/O devices are carried by control
- The CU, ALU and Memory is collectively known as: Central Processing Unit (CPU)
- It reads and interprets (decodes) the program instructions, transforming them into control signals: Control Unit
- Logic Operations involve Boolean logic like: AND, OR, XOR, NOT
- ALU performs two classes of operations: Arithmetic Logic
- A high speed semiconductor which can speed up CPU is: Cache Memory
- Register is a: Cache Memory