Important Computer Awareness Materials (Day-25) – Networking and Internet (part-1):
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Introduction of Computer Networking and Internet (part-1)
Computer networking means communication between a group of two or more computer systems linked together. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software.
LANs and WANs were the original flavors of network design.
Local Area Network (LAN):
A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. It is a system in which computers are interconnected and the geographical spread may be within a building to 1 kilometer.
TYPE OF LAN
- Star LAN
- Ring LAN
- Bus LAN
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN):
It is a data network designed for a town or city. This type of network is spread over a city. It connects an area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN, such as a city, with dedicated or high performance hardware.
Wide Area Network (WAN):
A WAN is a geographically dispersed collection of LANs. It is like the internet spans most of the world. In IP networking, the router maintains both a LAN address and a WAN address.
TYPES OF WAN
- Public Networks
- Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN)
- Public Service Digital Network (PSDN)
INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK (ISDN)
- ISDN is used for voice, video and data services.
- It uses digital transmission.
- It combines both circuit and packet switching.
Private Network provides services at various locations using private or leased circuits by using technology of its choice.
It is mostly used to carry large volume of data at very high speed transmission.
It uses Modem’s multiplexes and other communication devices.
Topology is the geometric arrangement of a computer system. Each computer system in a topology is known as a node. Network topology is determined only by the configuration of connections between nodes.
A bus topology is such that there is a single line to which all nodes are connected and the nodes connect only to this bus.
This type of network topology contains at least two nodes with two or more paths between them.
In this network topology, every node has exactly two branches connected to it. The ring is broken and cannot work if one of the nodes on the ring fails.
In this network topology, the peripheral nodes are connected to a central node, which rebroadcasts all transmissions received from any peripheral node to all peripheral nodes on the network, including the originating node.
This is a network topology in which nodes’ are arranged as a tree. The function of the central node in this topology may be distributed.
It is a network application architecture which separates the client from the server.
It is a scalable architecture, where each computer or process on the network is either a client or a server.
- Features of Server- Features of Client
- Passive (Slave) -Active (Master)
- Waiting for requests -Sending request
- On getting requests serves them and sends the reply- Waits until the response comes
- The interaction between client and server is often described using sequence diagrams.
- Sequence diagrams are standardized in the UML.
It is also known as P2P networking.
This computer network relies on computing power at the edges of a connection rather than in the network itself.
It is used for sharing content like audio, video, data or anything in digital format.
P2P network can also mean grid computing.