Important Computer Awareness for IBPS RRB 2017 (Day-14) – Operating System:
Dear Readers, IBPS Exams are approaching shortly, we all knew that Computer Awareness is one of the important section, which will help you to increase your score easily.
Many of our followers were asking us to provide Important Computer Awareness Notes along with the model questions, here we have planned to provide the Topic wise Important Computer Awareness Materials on Daily basis, and also we will provide MCQs based on these topics daily. Kindly follow us regularly and make use of it.
It is a program with following features:
- An operating system is a program that acts as an interface between the software and the computer hardware.
- It is an integrated set of specialized programs that are used to manage overall resources and operations of the computer.
- It is specialized software that controls and monitors the execution of all other programs that reside in the computer, including application programs and other system software.
Characteristics of Operating System:
- Memory Management —keeps tracks of primary memory i.e. what part of it is in use by whom, what part is not in use etc. and allocates the memory when a process or program requests it.
- Processor Management —allocates the processor(CPU) to a process and deallocates processor when it is no longer required.
- Device Management —keeps track of all devices. This is also called I/O controller that decides which process gets the device, when, and for how much time.
- File Management —allocates and de-allocates the resources and decides who gets the resources.
- Security —prevents unauthorized access to programs and data by means of passwords and similar other techniques.
- Job accounting —keeps track of time and resources used by various jobs and/or users.
Control over system performance — records delays between request for a service and from the system.
- Interaction with the operators —The interaction may take place via the console of the computer in the form of instructions. Operating System acknowledges the same, does the corresponding action and informs the operation by a display screen.
- Error-detecting aids —Production of dumps, traces, error messages and other debugging and error-detecting methods.
- Coordination between other software and users —Coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, assemblers and other software to the various users of the computer systems.
The Layered structure of an operating system is as follows:
The three objectives of an operating system are as follows:
- Ability to evolve with time and technology.
(a) Kernel: A kernel is the central part of an operating system. It manages the tasks of the computer and the hardware – most notably memory and CPU time. There are two types of kernels: A microkernel, which only contains basic functionality; A monolithic kernel, which contains many drivers.
(b) Memory Management: Memory management is the functionality of an operating system which handles or manages primary memory and moves processes back and forth between main memory and disk during execution. Memory management keeps track of each and every memory location, regardless of either it is allocated to some process or it is free.
(c) Input / Output: In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system.
(d) File Management System: A file is a named collection of related information that is recorded on secondary storage such as magnetic disks, magnetic tapes and optical disks. In general, a file is a sequence of bits, bytes, lines or records whose meaning is defined by the files creator and user.
(e) User Interface: A user interface (UI) is the part of an operating system, program or device that the user uses to input and receive data. A text user interface (TUI, see the image to the left below) shows text, and its commands are usually written from the keyboard to the command line.
- Allocates and de allocates the processor (cpu) to a process:Processor Management
- Keep track of time and resources:Job accounting
- Allocates and de allocates the resources:File Management
- Records delays between request for a service and from the system:Control System Performance
- Production of dumb , traces, error messages :Error detecting aids
- Interface between a user and a computer:Operating System
- The software which manages the hardware is:Operating system