Important English Vocabulary from “The Economist”-(Day-4):
Dear Readers, to score good marks in English Section first and for most thing is you need to develop your reading skills, while reading a passage you need to highlight the tough words in it and you should know the correct meaning for those words. This will help you understand the passage clearly and also you can learn more new words, it means also you can develop your vocabulary. To help you in this part we have provided a passage along with meaning, synonyms and usages of hard words in the passage, make use of it.
The Link between poor harvests and Violence
LAST year over 102,000 people died in nearly 50 armed conflicts across the world, according to the Peace Research Institute Oslo, a think-tank. Much of this violence is caused by tensions between ethnic groups—two-thirds of civil wars have been fought along ethnic lines since 1946. Yet historians differ over whether cultural differences or economic pressures best explain how tensions explode into violence.
A new study* by Robert Warren Anderson, Noel Johnson and Mark Koyama suggests that, historically, economic shocks were more strongly associated with outbreaks of violence directed against Jews than scholars had previously thought. The authors collected data for 1,366 anti-Semitic events involving forced emigration or murderous pogroms in 936 European cities between 1100 and 1800. This was then compared with historical temperature data from a variety of sources, including tree rings, Arctic ice cores and contemporary descriptions of the weather.
Cold spells hit medieval agriculture hard: a one-degree Celsius fall in temperatures reduced the growing season by up to four weeks. Lower yields caused widespread economic pain: up to 57% of people relied on farming for work in medieval England, for instance. The authors find that a fall in average temperatures of only a third of a degree increased the probability of a pogrom or expulsion by 50% over the next five years. They argue that violence against Jews was not simply caused by religiously-motivated anti-Semitism: “The Jews were convenient scapegoats for social and economic ills.”
The authors find that economic shocks had greater effects where soils were less suited to farming or where governments were weaker, and so less able to stop violence. A fall in anti-Semitic attacks in the 17th and 18th centuries was due to the emergence of strong nation-states able to smooth out economic bumps and protect minorities during periods of strain, the paper concludes.
Echoes of these patterns are discernible today. Many economists have linked the weather—particularly droughts and heatwaves in agricultural economies—to outbreaks of intercommunal violence in developing countries. Another paper** published last year, by Carl-Friedrich Schleussner and his colleagues, found that between 1980 and 2010 23% of civil wars coincided with climate-related disasters in countries with deep ethnic divides. Global warming may worsen this problem further. The lesson of history is that better political institutions can help soothe tensions. But these institutions take decades to develop. A quicker solution—insurance that pays out in years of bad weather—may not just be a boon for farmers, but for the world’s ethnic minorities, too.
Source: The Economist
1). Ethnic (Adj)
Definition: relating to a population subgroup (within a larger or dominant national or cultural group) with a common national or cultural tradition.
Synonyms: racial, race-related, ethnological, genetic
Usage: Ethnic and cultural rights and traditions.
2). Pogroms (Noun)
Definition: an organized massacre of a particular ethnic group, in particular that of Jews in Russia or eastern Europe.
Synonyms: massacre, slaughter, wholesale slaughter, mass slaughter, mass killing
Usage: The Nazis began a pogrom against Jewish people in Germany.
3). Contemporary (Adj)
Definition: belonging to or occurring in the present.
Synonyms: modern, present-day, present, current, present-time, immediate
Usage: The tension and complexities of our contemporary society.
4). Rely (Verb)
Definition: depend on with full trust or confidence.
Synonyms: count, bank, place reliance, bargain, plan
Usage: I know I can rely on your discretion.
5). Instance (Noun)
Definition: an example or single occurrence of something.
Synonyms: example, occasion, occurrence, case, representative case
Usage: There was not a single instance of religious persecution.
6). Expulsion (Noun)
Definition: the action of forcing someone to leave an organization.
Synonyms: removal, debarment, dismissal, exclusion, discharge
Usage: They faced expulsion from the party.
7). Scapegoats (Noun)
Definition: a person who is blamed for the wrongdoings, mistakes, or faults of others, especially for reasons of expediency.
Synonyms: whipping boy, victim
Usage: The older boy bullied his younger brother into being the scapegoat for the crime he committed.
8). Discernible (Adj)
Definition: able to be discerned; perceptible.
Synonyms: visible, detectable, noticeable, perceptible, observable
Usage: The figure was scarcely discernible in the pale moonlight.
9). Soothe (Verb)
Definition: gently calm (a person or their feelings).
Synonyms: calm, calm down, quiet, pacify
Usage: A shot of brandy might soothe his nerves.
10). Boon (Noun)
Definition: a thing that is helpful or beneficial.
Synonyms: blessing, godsend, bonus, good thing, benefit
Usage: The route will be a boon to many travellers.