SBI Clerk Prelims 2021 English Language Questions (Day-14)

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Reading comprehension

Directions (1-5): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions based on the passage.

Lacking an independent election commission, the US has a complicated electoral administration system. Legally, states decide who will be the president. After people cast their votes, states certify election outcomes, forming an electoral college, whose vote is finally accepted by US legislators on January 6. The vice-president presides over this political ceremonial but legally necessary step, the last one before a president can be inaugurated on January 20. Mike Pence, Trump’s vice-president, refused to overturn the election, infuriating his boss. A huge majority of Republican senators also expressed unwillingness to comply. In the end, the coup failed and Biden was ratified. And as these lines are being written, Trump seems to have recognised publicly that the violence has hurt him.

Why do scholars believe that developing countries have coups, but richer democracies do not? Two arguments are often advanced. First, in poorer countries the institutions of oversight, being much weaker, crumble under the onslaughts of mighty politicians. Second, politics in developing countries can have an all-or-nothing quality. The government has such control over the economy and society that once out of power, losses can be huge and imprisonment may not be too far. That generates a political tendency to stay in power at all costs. In richer democracies, opportunities beyond the government are plentiful. An electoral loss does not rob life of all enhancements. Company boards, memoirs, consulting and speaking, legal practices and business openings can fetch millions. The government does not have a decisive control over all sectors of society.

Trump’s motivations remain open to speculation. Of the two main hypotheses, one is ideological, another personal. His commitment to a political order that restores white supremacy has been repeatedly noted. Many in the mob were carrying Confederate flags. Since the Civil War (1861-65), these flags, representing those southern states that broke away to preserve slavery, have stood for white supremacy and Black subjugation.

A second hypothesis is that once out of power, Trump fears prosecution for crimes. In addition to the potentially criminal charges of tax fraud, there are questions about corruption, abuse of power, and violation of campaign finance laws. Ironically, inciting a mob to pressure the legislature, aimed at solving an immediate problem, might now lead to the most serious charge of all: Abetting an insurrection.

Nancy Pelosi, Democratic Speaker of the House of Representatives, and Chuck Schumer, who will soon take over the leadership of a Democratic-majority Senate, have already called for the invocation of the 25th Constitutional Amendment. If supported by a majority of the cabinet, the amendment allows the vice president to unseat the president. In case the amendment is not invoked, say Pelosi and Schumer, they would like to impeach Trump, even if less than two weeks remain in his term. That will, in all likelihood, disqualify him from running again in the 2024 elections. This is important because a self-pardon might well save Trump from criminal prosecution, at least for federal crimes, though many legal scholars have serious doubts about the constitutionality of self-pardon.


1) What are the repercussions for the USA of not having an independent Election Commission?

  1. The Presidential Election is managed by the Senate, which is not known for its bipartisanship
  2. The vice-presidential elections are not transparent, disrupting the democratic ethos
  3. Elections are mainly the domain of the states, which in turn causes chaos while transfer of power
  4. The political unity needed for a strong front is disrupted, exemplifying and romanticising marginalisation
  5. None of the above


2) Why are the coups not common in richer democracies?

  1. There is more fascination with the power and it is important to maintain the stature
  2. Less interference by the government leads to – economic opportunities easily found, even if one loses an election
  3. Richer companies are there to fund the elections and in return it is easier to find a position in those companies
  4. Politicians and their mighty demagoguery are limited to poorer nations only
  5. None of the above


3) Which of the following apprehensions are posed by the author presumably engulfing the mind of Trump?

  1. There is a greater possibility of his incrimination in criminal and civil cases related to taxes as well
  2. Trump’s agenda has been political as well personal, with a bitter taste for white supremacy
  3. Trump’s proclamation of the 25th constitutional amendment might change the political scenario and he could be charged
  4. Both (a) and (b)
  5. Both (a) and (c)


4) Which of the following words can replace the word HYPOTHESIS in the passage?

  1. Postulation
  2. Dissertation
  3. Hyphenation
  4. Retribution
  5. None of the above


5) Which of the following is the most appropriate synonym of the word – INSURRECTION?

  1. Homogeneity
  2. Camaraderie
  3. Mutiny
  4. Introspection
  5. None of the above


Theme Based

Directions (6-10): Some paragraphs are given below. One of the paragraphs is out of the context and does not match the central theme. Identify that and also rearrange the others in the correct chronological order.

a) Instead of moving in large convoys, like the one on February 14, 2019 with 78 vehicles, it was decided that personnel will move in smaller contingents with a maximum of 40 vehicles.

b) The government has also allowed all personnel to take a flight to Srinagar from either Jammu or Delhi and air courier service for the central paramilitary forces has been increased

c) Two years since a Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) suicide bomber Adil Ahmad Dar rammed his explosive-laden car in the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) convoy on the national highway.

d) The ROPs (road opening parties), which are placed before the convoy moves on the highway, have been strengthened and trained for early warning mechanisms in identifying suspects who could attack the moving vehicles.

e) Immediately after the deadly attack on that fateful day that pushed India and Pakistan to the brink of war.

F) Reduced size of convoys, bulletproof vehicles and restricting the movement of civilian vehicles on the highway are some of the measures taken to ensure that terrorists do not carry out another suicide car bombing.


6)
Which of the following paragraph/sentence is out of the context and does not match the central theme of the given passage?

  1. E
  2. D
  3. A
  4. C
  5. None of these


7) What will be the penultimate paragraph after rearrangement?

  1. E
  2. D
  3. A
  4. B
  5. None of these


8) Which of the following will be the concluding paragraph after
rearrangement?

  1. B
  2. E
  3. A
  4. F
  5. None of these


9)
Which of the following will be the Second sentence after rearrangement?

  1. F
  2. A
  3. E
  4. C
  5. None of these


10)
Which of the following will be the third sentence from the last after rearrangement?

  1. B
  2. A
  3. F
  4. E
  5. None of these


Answers :

Directions (1-5):

1) Answer: C

Read these lines from the passage- “Lacking an independent election commission, the US has a complicated electoral administration system. Legally, states decide who will be president”. Hence, it is clear that option (c) is the correct answer.


2) Answer: B

Read these lines from the passage- “An electoral loss does not rob life of all enhancements. Company boards, memoirs, consulting and speaking, legal practices and business openings can fetch millions. The government does not have a decisive control over all sectors of society.”. Hence, it is clear that option (b) is the correct answer.


3) Answer: E

Both (a) and (b) are pointed by author in the passage. Option (c) is not mentioned with respect to Trump, but with a Senator named Nancy Pelosi.


4) Answer: A

HYPOTHESIS means a theory which is yet to be proved. Postulation is a synonym of Hypothesis. Whereas- Dissertation means a thesis, Hyphenation means to separate two words by a Hyphen (-) and Retribution means revenge. Hence, only Postulation can replace Hypothesis in the passage.


5) Answer: C

INSURRECTION means a retaliation against the authority. Homogeneity- means a uniformity or same mixture. Camaraderie- means a close friendship. Introspection means to examine one’s emotional and mental state. Hence, only Mutiny is the synonym to the word Insurrection.


Directions (6-10):

The correct sequence will be FCEAD.

F) Reduced size of convoys, bulletproof vehicles and restricting the movement of civilian vehicles on the highway are some of the measures taken to ensure that terrorists do not carry out another suicide car bombing.

c) Two years since a Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) suicide bomber Adil Ahmad Dar rammed his explosive-laden car in the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) convoy on the national highway.

e) Immediately after the deadly attack on that fateful day that pushed India and Pakistan to the brink of war.

a) Instead of moving in large convoys, like the one on February 14, 2019 with 78 vehicles, it was decided that personnel will move in smaller contingents with a maximum of 40 vehicles.

d)The ROPs (road opening parties), which are placed before the convoy moves on the highway, have been strengthened and trained for early warning mechanisms in identifying suspects who could attack the moving vehicles.

Therefore, option E is the correct answer choice to this question.


6) Answer: E

Only Paragraph B is clearly out of the context. While the other paragraphs speak of an issue, paragraph B speaks about the ` The government also allowed all personnel to take a flight to Srinagar’. The correct sequence after rearrangement will be FCEAD. Given below is the chronological order of paragraphs:-


7) Answer: B

We can easily understand that F can be the introductory sentence. After F none of them fits here except C. Paragraph E mentions the consequence of the amicable solution in which  `India and Pakistan was pushed aside to the brink of war’. If we look at the chronology of events then A can come and D will fit at the end.

The correct sequence after rearrangement will be FCEAD.


8) Answer: E

The correct sequence after rearrangement will be FCEAD. G


9) Answer: D

The correct sequence after rearrangement will be FCEAD.


10) Answer: D

The correct sequence after rearrangement will be FCEAD.

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