“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI Clerk / IDBI Executive 2018 Day-69

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 (Day-69)

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Directions (Q 1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

A new chapter on the access to medication debate in India began when Shamnad Basheer filed a public interest litigation before the Delhi High Court. The petition pointed out the importance of “working requirements” in the Patents Act, 1970; the need to amend Form 27; and the lapses by patentees in furnishing information. The importance of Form 27 on the question of access to health cannot be underestimated. In essence, Form 27 seeks information to ensure that the patented material is adequately supplied in India. If the supply of the patented invention does not cater to the demands, statutorily the reasonable requirement of the public with regard to the patented invention is deemed as not met. This will be a ground to seek compulsory licensing of the product within India. The underlying rationale is to protect public health. Patent law grants to the patentees the privilege of enjoying a limited monopoly in order to achieve the objective of public benefit. Thus, the quid pro quo for getting patent monopoly is patent disclosure. As part of the disclosures, patentees are required to disclose if they are locally working their patented invention in exchange for the conferred benefits. Thus, Section 83 of the Patents Act states that “patents are granted to encourage inventions and to secure that the inventions are worked in India on a commercial scale and to the fullest extent that is reasonably practicable” and that the monopoly granted to the patentees is not merely to import the invention. In streamlining the local working requirement, especially in the field of pharmaceuticals, India is in line with its international trade obligations.

The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights provides flexibilities and underscores the sovereign rights of countries to weave in the ground realities of each country while honouring their international trade commitments. The Doha Declaration outlines the right of national governments to compulsorily license patents and the “freedom to determine the grounds upon which such licences are granted specified in Article 31 of TRIPS. Thus, lack of local working of the patent can be grounds for granting a compulsory licence along with other grounds such as high prices and non-supply of the patented invention locally. In doing so, the Doha Declaration allows the exercise of sovereign rights to define when exclusive rights could be curtailed to achieve a larger public interest result. Seeking local working information is part of India’s use of its sovereign rights. The state is obligated to protect the right to life of its citizens under Article 21, and this duty is heavier than any duty that the state may owe the patentees. The state should ensure that patentees perform their duties as monopoly holders. This means that the grant of patents must contribute to the promotion of technological innovation and to the transfer and dissemination of technology in a manner conducive to social and economic welfare and to a balance of rights and obligations.

Currently, Form 27 requires patentees to submit a statement “regarding the working of the patented invention on a commercial scale in India”. But as the Form is bereft of crucial details, India’s next step is not to abjure it, but to revise it in a way that the conditions subject to which the patent privilege is granted are complied with. In this regard, the Indian Patents Act Section 146 empowers the Controller to require a patentee or a licensee to furnish statements of how the invention has been commercially worked in India. It also requires the patentees and every licensee to furnish the prescribed statements regarding the invention. The Controller also has the right to publish the information received. In this regard, requiring licensees to make a full disclosure of the patent working information through Form 27 would not be considered out of the norm. The liability for non-compliance with Form 27 must be strict civil liability. India needs to appreciate that the World Trade Organisation rules do not prohibit getting information on the local working. After all, TRIPS Article 27 does not apply to this situation. The Article 27 prohibition against discrimination based on whether the goods are locally manufactured or imported applies to the grant of a patent and not to grounds for issuing a compulsory license. Further, the WTO’s jurisprudence in Canada Pharmaceuticals states that the word “discrimination” does not ban all forms of differentiation and that it refers to “results of the unjustified imposition of differentially disadvantageous treatment.”Countries like India signed up to the intellectual property bandwagon to maximise opportunities for technology transfer. Part of this exercise involves allowing local firms to compete and improve innovation, especially on life-saving pharmaceuticals. There is no wisdom in enacting patent laws that mainly enable foreign companies to import into a jurisdiction, without using it as a tool to foster scientific and technological progress at home. Thus, disclosures under Form 27 are required as part of a national strategy to improve innovation and further technology transfer into India, to maintain public health and to ensure supply of pharmaceuticals nationally.

1) According to the passage which of the following directives is/are not stated under section 83 of patent act?

  1. It states that patents are granted to encourage inventions and to secure that the inventions are worked in India on a commercial scale
  2. It states to improve innovation and further technology transfer into India
  3. It states that the monopoly granted to the patentees is not merely to import the invention.

a) All except iii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) only ii

e) All are mentioned

2) Which of the following is mentioned true about the agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights?

a) It stated to allow local firms to compete and improve innovation

b) It stated to provide flexibilities and underscore the sovereign rights of countries

c) It stated to ensure supply of pharmaceuticals nationally.

d) It stated to determine the grounds upon which such licences are granted

e) None of these

3) Which of the following is mentioned true about the form no 27 in the passage?

  1. The liability for non-compliance with Form 27 must be strict civil liability.
  2. It seeks information to ensure that the patented material is adequately supplied in India.
  3. The form requires patentees to submit a statement regarding the working of the patented invention on a commercial scale in India.
  4. Disclosures under form are required as part of a national strategy to improve innovation

a) ii and iii

b) i and iv

c) iii and iv

d) i and ii

e) All are correct

4) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. World Trade Organisation rules do prohibit getting information on the local working.
  2. Section 146 empowers the Controller to require a patentee to furnish statements of how the invention has been commercially worked in India
  3.  Patent law grants to the patentees a limited monopoly in order to achieve the objective of public benefit.

a) ii and iii

b) i and iii

c) only i

d) i and ii

e) None of these

5) What does the phrase “signed up” means in the sentence – Countries like India signed up to the intellectual property bandwagon to maximise opportunities for technology transfer ?

a) To break off something

b) To commit or agree for something

c) To dilate something

d) To release out something

e) None of these

6) Which of the following has been mentioned true about Doha declaration in the passage?

  1. It outlines the right of national governments to compulsorily license patents
  2. It states to provide the “freedom to determine the grounds upon which such licences are granted.
  3. It states national strategy to improve innovation and further technology transfer into India
  4. It allows the exercise of sovereign rights to define when exclusive rights could be curtailed to achieve a larger public interest result.

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) ii and iv

d) all except iii

e) all are correct

7) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. The Controller also has the right to publish the information received.
  2. The state is obligated to protect the right to life of its citizens under Article 27
  3. The Article 27 prohibition against discrimination based on whether the goods are locally manufactured or imported applies to the grant of a patent.

a) ii and iii

b) i and ii

c) i and iii

d) only ii

e) All are true

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “foster” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Dampen

b) Endorse

c) Thwart

d) Restrain

e) Condemn

9) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “conducive” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Unpropitious

b) Inexpedient

c) Hindering

d) Contributory

e) Calamitous

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “abjure” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Retract

b) Disavow

c) Repudiate

d) Eschew

e) Emphasize

 

Directions (Q 11-15): In each of the following sentences there is one blank space. Below each sentence there are four words denoted by a), b), c) d) and e). Find ONE word that to be fitted in both the sentences I and II and another word that to fit in sentence III and to make it meaning fully complete.

11)

  1. When a tribe encounters civilization, the first things to get ________underfoot are the religious beliefs of the tribe.
  2. The panicking passengers who _______on the dead in their desperation to flee.
  3.  Despite the fanfare that accompanied the announcement, the scheme may not trigger a ________of investment.

a) Compressing, scattering

b) Trampled, stampede

c) Override, bolt

d) Assisted, rush

e) Encroach, flight

12)

  1. In the vast majority of incidents involving drugs or alcohol, the substances were consumed before boarding or ________secretly on board.
  2. Food is ________through the skin from the digestive juices of the host in which the Acanthocephala live.
  3. As he read the poem out loud, he ________the rhythm so badly that it hardly made any sense.

a) Assimilate, disfigured

b) Consume, ruined

c) Abstained, contorted

d) Imbibed, mangled

e) Ingurgitate, distorted

13)

  1. The pontifical absolution of September 17, finally _________the League, which had been again betrayed by the unsuccessful plot of Jean Chastel
  2. Only a uniformed guard _________with boredom might have overheard them.
  3.  I bear no ___________towards the man who shot me but now wish to move on with my life.

a) Mock, enmity

b) Hamper, animosity

c) Stultified, malice

d) Suppressed, benevolence

e) Benumb, grudge

14)

  1. It was my happiness to be destitute of this ________ passion, with which I had the greatest reason to be affected.
  2. Annie stared after her, reflecting sadly that teenage it is appeared to be _________ not only her son but his friends as well.
  3. The manager said that the team’s win on Saturday would be a/an _______ to even greater effort this season.

a) Afflicting, spur

b) Crucified, impulse

c) Distressing, deterrent

d) Tormented, trigger

e) Solacing, catalyst

15)

  1. He was ashamed to be there ashamed to meet the desolate and, as he believed, ________ sister.
  2. An entire program of the festival dedicated to the theme of ________ humans
  3. He looked embarrassed for a moment, then quickly regained his ________

a) Strayed, serenity

b) Deviating, agitation

c) Culpable, sangfroid

d) Blundering, stableness

e) Erring, poise

Direction (16-20) – In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a),b),c),d).Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences.

16) Spark up

  1. On the train, I sparked up a conversation with the person next to me.
  2. Kelly was the spark up the company needed to get their new project off the ground
  3. He lit a match and sparked up his pipe. .
  4. The trial sparked a debate up over free speech.

a) i and iii

b) ii and iv

c) i and ii

d) all except ii

e) All are correct

17) Butt in

  1. Pardon me for butting in on your conversation, but this is important.
  2. We butted in of the party when we heard sirens approaching.
  3. He kept on butting in with silly comments.
  4. The thieves stole my bag and butted in.

a) ii and iv

b) i and iii

c) iii and iv

d) i and ii

e) all are correct

18) Cut down

  1. Tom kept cutting down on her while she was talking.
  2. John’s critical remarks really cut me down to size
  3. The doctor told him to cut down on his drinking.
  4. The guy from the back of the line totally just cut down front of me!

a) i and ii

b) iii and iv

c) ii and iii

d) i and iv

e) all are correct

19) Thrash out

  1. The foreign ministers have thrashed out a suitable compromise formula.
  2. Meanwhile, the two companies continue to thrash out the details of their merger plan.
  3.  The committee took hours to thrash the whole matter out.
  4. The two sides finally thrashed out a compromise.

a) All except ii

b) iii and iv

c) i and ii

d) ii and iv

e) all are correct

20) Pare down

  1. The new NATO will be a pared-down military organization.
  2. I will have to pare the budget down to the minimum.
  3. I pared the free tickets down to my friends.
  4. I pared down the tiles so that they would fit snugly together.

a) ii and iv

b) iii and iv

c) all except iii

d) i and ii

e) all are correct

Answers:

Directions (Q 1-10):

1) Correct answer – d)

It is mentioned in para 1-Thus, Section 83 of the Patents Act states that “patents are granted to encourage inventions and to secure that the inventions are worked in India on a commercial scale and to the fullest extent that is reasonably practicable” and that the monopoly granted to the patentees is not merely to import the invention.

2) Correct answer – b)

It is mentioned in para 2-The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights provides flexibilities and underscores the sovereign rights of countries

3) Correct answer – e)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1&3- In essence, Form 27 seeks information to ensure that the patented material is adequately supplied in India, The liability for non-compliance with Form 27 must be strict civil liability, Thus, disclosures under Form 27 are required as part of a national strategy to improve innovation, Form 27 requires patentees to submit a statement “regarding the working of the patented invention on a commercial scale in India.

4) Correct answer – c)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1&3-India needs to appreciate that the World Trade Organisation rules do not prohibit getting information on the local working, Patent law grants to the patentees the privilege of enjoying a limited monopoly in order to achieve the objective of public benefit, the Indian Patents Act Section 146 empowers the Controller to require a patentee or a licensee to furnish statements of how the invention has been commercially worked in India.

5) Correct answer – b)

The meaning of the phrase signed up is to commit or undertake

6) Correct answer – d)

It is clearly mentioned in para 2-The Doha Declaration outlines the right of national governments to compulsorily license patents and the “freedom to determine the grounds upon which such licences are granted specified in Article 31 of TRIPS. The Doha Declaration allows the exercise of sovereign rights to define when exclusive rights could be curtailed to achieve a larger public interest result

7) Correct answer – c)

It is clearly mentioned in para 2&3- The Controller also has the right to publish the information received, the state is obligated to protect the right to life of its citizens under Article 21, The Article 27 prohibition against discrimination based on whether the goods are locally manufactured or imported applies to the grant of a patent and not to grounds for issuing a compulsory license.

8) Correct answer – b)

The meaning of the word foster is to encourage the development of something

9) Correct answer – d)

The meaning of the word conducive is making a certain situation or outcome likely or possible.

10) Correct answer – e)

The meaning of the word abjure is to take back or renounce

Directions (Q 11-15):

11) Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “trampled” is to walk or run over something/someone and it is suitable for i and   ii blanks and the meaning of “stampede” is headlong rush of a crowd so it is appropriate for iii blank.

12) Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “imbibed” is to swallow or absorb something and it is suitable for i and   ii blanks and the meaning of “mangled” is spoil or mess up something so it is appropriate for iii blank.

13) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “stultified” is to cause to lose enthusiasm or cause (someone) to appear foolish and it is suitable for i and   ii blanks and the meaning of “malice” is the desire to harm someone; ill will so it is appropriate for iii blank

14) Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “afflicting” is to cause trouble to or affect adversely and it is suitable for i and   ii blanks and the meaning of “spur” is encouragement or stimulation so it is appropriate for iii blank.

15) Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “erring” is be mistaken or incorrect and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “poise” is be or cause to be balanced so it is appropriate for iii blank

Direction (16-20)

16) Correct Answer is: d)

The meaning of “spark up” is to initiate some conversation or to light something and the phrase has been applied properly in i, iii and iv sentences.

17) Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “butt in” is to interrupt someone or something and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences.

18) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “cut down” is to reduce or to humiliate, humble, etc. by criticizing sharply and the phrase has been applied properly in ii and iii sentences

19) Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “thrash out” is to discuss something thoroughly and solve any problems or to come to some agreement and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences

20) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “pare down” is to cut someone down to something or trim something and the phrase has been applied properly in i, ii and iv sentences

Daily Practice Test Schedule | Good Luck

Topic Daily Publishing Time
Daily News Papers & Editorials 8.00 AM
Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Logical Reasoning 10.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
Static GK Quiz 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Banking Awareness Quiz 3.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM
General / Financial Awareness Quiz 9.00 PM

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