“20-20” English Question | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 Day-87

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“20-20” English Questions | Crack SBI Clerk 2018 (Day-87)

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Direction (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.

There has been a lot of discussion on universal basic income in both developed and developing countries. The primary objective is to enable every citizen to have a certain minimum income. The term ‘universal’ is meant to connote that the minimum or basic income will be provided to everyone irrespective of whatever their current income is. In discussing the applicability of the concept of basic income to India, three questions arise. The first is whether it should be ‘universal’ the second is what the level of minimum income is and how this is to be determined; and the third is about the financing mechanism or implementing such a scheme. Cash gives the discretion to beneficiaries to spend it any way they like. On the other hand, the provision of services or goods directly to beneficiaries may be directed to achieve certain objectives in terms of nutrition or health or education. In the provision of services, the concern is about leakages and quality of service. However, as far as India is concerned, we are not starting with a clean state. There are a whole lot of services provided by the state, and it would be impossible to knock them off and substitute them with general income support. We need to think of income support as a supplement to services already provided even though a hard look at some of the provisions is absolutely essential.

Most calculations involving the provision of income to one and all are beyond the capabilities of the present Central government Budget unless the basic income is fixed at too low a level. The attempt must be to think in terms of reducing the number of beneficiaries using easily definable criteria. It is true that a universal scheme is easy to implement. Feasibility is the critical question. There is also the consideration of fairness. But strict targeting will run into complex problems of identification. The issue whether the scheme should be universal depends on the level of basic income that is proposed to be provided. If we were to treat the cut-off used to define poverty as the minimum income, then the total fiscal burden would be enormous. Our analysis using different poverty lines shows that poverty is concentrated around the poverty line. In fact, more than 60% of the total poor lies between 75% of the poverty line and the poverty line. Therefore, what is needed is a supplement to fill the poverty gap. One alternative would be to determine the required income supplement from the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. The total annual income supplement can be equivalent to hundred days of the wages prescribed under the MGNREGS. This is equivalent to ₹20,000 per year. This amount can be treated as the income supplement.

The next question is who the beneficiaries should be. Here again, it is difficult to cover the entire population. Even providing one person per household with this income will mean ₹5 lakh crore per annum, which is 3.3% of GDP. Perhaps what is feasible is a scheme which limits the total expenditure to around 1.5 to 2% of GDP, which is between ₹2 lakh crore and ₹3 lakh crore. We need to evolve a criterion which can restrict the total cost to this amount. One way of doing it will be to limit it to all women above the age of 45. This is an easily identifiable criterion because Aadhaar cards feature the age of the person. Restricting the beneficiaries to the elderly or widows or those with disabilities may have only a limited impact. Making available a minimum of ₹20,000 per year for almost 10 crore people which means a total expenditure of ₹2 lakh crore must make a dent on poverty since at least half of them would be for the poor or people a little above the poverty line. Some analysts have suggested that we can remove all exemptions in our tax system which would give us enough money. Apart from the difficulties in removing all exemptions, tax experts advocate removing exemptions so that the basic tax rate can be reduced. Perhaps, out of the two lakh crore which is needed, one lakh crore can come from the phasing out of some of the expenditures while the remainder must come from raising additional revenue. Perhaps, one can phase out the MGNREGS, which will realise close to ₹40,000 crore. Fertilizer subsidies are another item of expenditure which can be eliminated. Perhaps, requesting higher income groups to forego supplemental income will reduce the expenditure, as has been done successfully in the case of cooking gas. In fact, the concept of a basic income must be turned essentially into a supplemental income. Such a scheme will be feasible provided we restrict the beneficiaries to groups which can be easily identified. Regarding finances, it is not easy to remove all implicit subsidies. The design for financing the scheme has to be viewed in a more pragmatic way. Restricting the fiscal burden to 1.5 to 2% of GDP seems desirable and feasible.

1) According to the passage which of the following given statements is/are one of the questions that arises on the applicability of the concept of basic income to India?

  1. The question is about the level of minimum income and how this is going to be determined
  2. The question is about the implementation of a scheme
  3. The question is about the mechanism of fiscal compulsions

a) i and ii

b) ii and iii

c) only ii

d) i and iii

e) All are correct

2) What do you mean by the phrase phasing out in the statement – one lakh crore can come from the phasing out of some of the expenditures?

a) To ratify something gradually

b) to discontinue or withdraw something

c) to commission something

d) to substantiate something

e) None of these

3) Which of the following is not true in the context of the passage?

  1. The main objective of universal basic income scheme is to enable every citizen to have a certain minimum income
  2. Tax experts recommend removing exemptions so that the basic tax rate can be achieved
  3. There are hundred days of the wages prescribed under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

a) i and ii

b) only ii

c) ii and iii

d) all except iii

e) None of these

4) Which of the following given statements are matter of discussion regarding enforcement of universal basic income scheme?

  1. The query is about the stability or feasibility reference to the implementation of the scheme
  2. The query is how to forego supplemental income in order to reduce expenditures
  3. The query is also about the condition for being the beneficiary of the scheme.

a) Only iii

b) i and ii

c) ii and iii

d) i and iii

e) None if these

5) Which of the following given criterion has been mentioned in the passage in order to identify the beneficiaries for the scheme?

a) Permanent account number

b) driving license or passport

c) Aadhaar card

d) Voter identity card

e) None of these

6) Which of the following is true in the context of the passage?

  1. More than 60% of the total poor lies between 75% of the poverty line and the poverty line.
  2. Scheme which limits the total expenditure to around 0.5 to 2% of GDP is workable
  3. In order to fill the poverty gap one another option would be to determine the required income supplement from the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme

a) Only ii

b) ii and iii

c) i and ii

d) i and iii

e) none of these

7) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “discretion” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Callowness

b) Nescience

c) Inclination

d) Oblivion

e) Disregard

8) Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word “feasible” printed in bold as used in the passage.

a) Speculative

b) Expedient

c) Chimerical

d) Inoperable

e) Visionary

9) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “pragmatic” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Realistic

b) Sober

c) Utilitarian

d) Quixotic

e) Efficient

10) Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word “connote” printed in bold as used in the passage

a) Enshroud

b) Insinuate

c) Betoken

d) Designate

e) Intend

Direction (11-15): In each of the following questions on phrase has been given and it has been followed by four sentences. You have to find out on which sentences phrase has been used properly according to its meaning and mark your answer from the options denoted a),b),c),d)Mark e) as your answer of you find that the phrase has been applied properly in all sentences

11) Ride by

  1. Jackie rode by the store and forget to stop and go in.
  2. Bets said good-bye and rode by.
  3. Alia rode by me without saying anything.
  4. We had to ride by the runaway horse.

a) iii and iv

b) ii and iii

c) i and iii

d) ii and iv

e) All are correct

12) Come over

  1. Please come over the entrance slowly.
  2. I watched the interview and felt he came over as quite arrogant.
  3. Todd came over the test with flying colors.
  4. Darkness came over the city and streetlights blinked on.

a) i and ii

b) ii and iv

c) i and iii

d) all except iii

e) All are correct

13) Break in on

  1. The doctor’s voice broke in on her thoughts
  2. Minor details breaking in on his work
  3. If you need to talk to me, just break in on me.
  4. The police broke in on him at his home and arrested him.

a) ii and iii

b) i and iv

c) iii and iv

d) all except ii

e) All are correct

14) Put up with

  1. His attitude put me right up with him.
  2. I will put her up with my cousin, who has an extra bedroom.
  3.  He’s been very patient, putting up with all kinds of inconvenience.
  4. You have to work long hours and that puts up with a lot of people.

a) ii and iv

b) iii and iv

c) i and ii

d) ii and iii

e) All are correct

15) Make into

  1. I’d like to make these pieces of wood into a sculpture.
  2. She made a lot of money into real estate.
  3. They’ve made the spare room into an office.
  4. What do you make into this news?

a) i and ii

b) ii and iv

c) i and iii

d) iii and iv

e) All are correct

Direction (16-20): In each of the following sentences there is one blank space. Below each sentence there are four words denoted by a), b), c) d) and e). Find ONE word that to be fitted in both the sentences I and II and another word that to fit in sentence III and to make it meaning fully complete.

16)

  1. They are trying to ask us to do or promise something which, as a matter of fact, they know it would be both impossible and ______ to promise.
  2. They were advised that it would be _______ to become over-reliant on foreign markets.
  3. He was awoken by a sharp ______ pain in her chest.

a) Inexpedient, twinges

b) Imprudent, stabbing

c) Circumspect, pricking

d) Heedless, ache

e) Temerarious, incision

17)

  1. Despite a quiet, modest manner, and his politically moderate stance, he was a witty, often_________ speaker.
  2. He then launched a_________ attack on previous leaders.
  3. The explosive failed to _______ instead only giving off large quantities of smoke.

a) Scathing, detonate

b) Trenchant, blasted

c) Amiable, fulminate

d) Scorching, bursting

e) Withering, triggered

18)

  1. A lot of oil has _______ out of the car onto the driveway.
  2. Rolling clouds of poisonous gases had ________ into their lungs and killed them where they stood
  3. Opponents are unlikely to be able to ______ enough votes to override the veto.

a) Exude, assemblage

b) Percolated, aggregation

c) Seeped, muster

d) Transude, gathering

e) Oozed, summon

19)

  1. However, for some reason local authorities now want to ______ that responsibility.
  2. She spurns the doctrine that it is woman’s position to _______ and to immolate herself.
  3. Most of the old road has been _________ by the great interstate highways.

a) Abstained, overthrew

b) Refrain, repudiated

c) Forswear, supplant

d) Relinquished, discard

e) Abnegate, superseded

20)

  1. I am too pitched to compose a ledgable argument, though not too ______ to drive.
  2. It is early, therefore I am currently ______ as I write this urban dictionary entry.
  3. The TV series continues its haphazard ______ around the globe – this week in Portugal.

a) Launch, peregrinate

b) Pitched, meander

c) Flipped, twisted

d) Heave, ramble

e) Propelled, recoiling

Answers:

Direction (1-10):

1) Correct answer- a)

It is mentioned in para 1- In discussing the applicability of the concept of basic income to India, three questions arise. The first is whether it should be ‘universal’ the second is what the level of minimum income is and how this is to be determined; and the third is about the financing mechanism or implementing such a scheme.

2) Correct answer- b)

If something is phased out, people gradually stop using it or to bring or come to an end

3) Correct answer- b)

It is clearly mentioned in para 1&2-The primary objective is to enable every citizen to have a certain minimum income, the total annual income supplement can be equivalent to hundred days of the wages prescribed under the MGNREGS.

4) Correct answer- d)

It is mentioned in para 2&3- It is true that a universal scheme is easy to implement. Feasibility is the critical question, the next question is who the beneficiaries should be.

5) Correct answer- c)

It is mentioned in para 3-This is an easily identifiable criterion because Aadhaar cards feature the age of the person.

6) Correct answer- d)

It is mentioned in para 2-In fact, more than 60% of the total poor lies between 75% of the poverty line and the poverty line, Therefore, what is needed is a supplement to fill the poverty gap. One alternative would be to determine the required income supplement from the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. The total annual income supplement can be equivalent to hundred days of the wages prescribed under the MGNREGS.

7) Correct answer – c)

The meaning of discretion is the freedom to decide what should be done in a particular situation.

8) Correct answer – b)

The meaning of expedient is possible and practical to do easily or conveniently.

9) Correct answer – d)

The meaning of pragmatic is dealing with things sensibly and realistically in a way that is based on practical rather than theoretical considerations.

10) Correct answer – a)

The meaning of connote is imply as a consequence or condition.

Direction (11-15):

11) Correct answer- c)

The meaning of “ride by” is to pass by someone or something and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences.

12) Correct answer- b)

The meaning of “come over” is to move over and above someone or something or to influence or overwhelm someone strongly but temporarily and the phrase has been applied properly in ii and iv sentences.

13) Correct answer- e)

The meaning of “break in on” is to burst into a place and violate some one’s privacy or to interrupt something and the phrase has been applied properly in all the sentences.

14) Correct answer- d)

The meaning of “put up with” is to provide someone with overnight accommodation or to tolerate or endure someone or something and the phrase has been applied properly in ii and iii sentences.

15) Correct answer- c)

The meaning of “make into” is to turn someone or something into something else and the phrase has been applied properly in i and iii sentences.

Direction (16-20):

16)Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “imprudent” is not showing care for the consequences of an action or incautious and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “stabbing” is a sudden pain so it is appropriate for iii blank.

17) Correct Answer is: a)

The meaning of “scathing” is severely critical or devastating and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “detonate” explode or cause to explode is so it is appropriate for iii blank.

18) Correct Answer is: c)

The meaning of “seeped” is to flow or leak slowly through porous material or small holes and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “muster” is to collect or assemble (a number or amount)so it is appropriate for iii blank.

19) Correct Answer is: e)

The meaning of “abnegate” is to renounce or reject something desired or valuable and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “superseded” is to replace or remove so it is appropriate for iii blank.

20) Correct Answer is: b)

The meaning of “pitched” is to throw roughly or casually and it is suitable for i and ii blanks and the meaning of “meander” is to follow a winding course or to bend so it is appropriate for iii blank.

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Topic Daily Publishing Time
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Current Affairs Quiz 9.00 AM
Logical Reasoning 10.00 AM
Quantitative Aptitude “20-20” 11.00 AM
Vocabulary (Based on The Hindu) 12.00 PM
Static GK Quiz 1.00 PM
English Language “20-20” 2.00 PM
Banking Awareness Quiz 3.00 PM
Reasoning Puzzles & Seating 4.00 PM
Daily Current Affairs Updates 5.00 PM
Data Interpretation / Application Sums (Topic Wise) 6.00 PM
Reasoning Ability “20-20” 7.00 PM
English Language (New Pattern Questions) 8.00 PM
General / Financial Awareness Quiz 9.00 PM

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