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Why the war on poverty is about to get harder
In the past few decades something amazing has happened. The share and the number of extremely poor people in the world (on the current definition, people who consume less than $1.90 a day at purchasing-power parity) hasplunged. This is hugely welcome. People who live on less than $1.90 a day are very poor indeed—poor, in fact, even by the standards of the world’s poorest countries. So it is regrettable that thesteepdecline in poverty is unlikely to continue. Extreme poverty will probably not fall as quickly in the next few years as it has done for the past few decades. Why?
The World Bank, which tracks poverty, estimates that 1.9bn people were extremely poor in 1981. In that year, the poor accounted for 42% of the world’s population. In 2013, by contrast, only 767m people were poor. Because the world’s population has grown so much in theinterim, the share of poor people in the population has fallen even faster, to just below 11%. The single biggest reason for this delightful trend is China. In 1981, almost unbelievably, 88% of Chinese (and 96% of rural Chinese) seem to have lived below the poverty line. In 2013 only 2% of Chinese were extremely poor.
That cannot continue. China will soon eradicate extreme poverty, if it has not done so already. So will countries like Indonesia and Vietnam, which have been almost as good at cutting poverty. That leaves a rump of poverty in South Asia and, especially, sub-Saharan Africa. In 2013, for the first time, more than half of the paupers in the world were African. Poverty will be much harder to root out in those places. South Asian countries like Bangladesh and India have decent economic growth butfeeble welfare systems. Africa doesn’t even have the former, especially considering how quickly its population is increasing. Besides, poor Africans often live on much less than $1.90 a day. It is hard to pull exceptionally poor people (sometimes called the “ultra-poor”) over the line. Even African countries that are growing fairly well, like Ethiopia and Rwanda, will have huge poor populations for many years even if incomes rise across the board.
The most obvious but least important consequence of this change is that the world is likely to miss a target. The first of the UN’s “sustainable development goals” has the world cutting poverty to 3% by 2030. That probably will not happen. More important will be a broad loss of confidence. The war on want has gone so well over the years that a sudden slowdown will come as a shock. But at least deep poverty is contained. It is no longer a globalscourge, just a South Asian and African one. That is some cause for celebration.
1). Which among the following explains about the reason behind the failure ofsustainable development goal?
(i) Detriment of confidence
(ii) Desertion of the combat on want
(iii) Increasing population
a) Only (i) is correct
b) Only (ii) is correct
c) Both (i) and (iii) are correct
d) All are correct
e) Both (i) and (ii) are correct
2). Which of the following statement is false regarding extremely poor people as per the passage?
a) People who live on less than $1.90 a day are very poor.
b) In the next few years extreme poverty will probably not decline quickly.
c) Only 2% of Chinese were extremely poor in 2013.
d) The share and the number of extremely poor people in the world have increased.
e) It is difficult to pull poor people over the line.
3). What is appropriate title for the passage?
a) Development against poverty
b) Situation of India in poverty
c) Why the war on poverty is about to get harder
d) Poverty: A comparison over different countries
e) None is suitable for the passage
4). Which among the following option (s) is/are true in regard to the state of poverty in different countries as per the passage?
a) Bangladesh and India have virtuous economic growth.
b) Indonesia and Vietnam are not tremendous at cutting poverty.
c) In 1891, 88% of Chinese seem to have lived below the poverty line.
d) More than half of the tycoon in the world was African.
e) All of the above
5). Which among the following option (s) is/are true regarding the increasing population of the world as per the passage?
a) Population growth leaves a rump of poverty in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.
b) Due to theworld population growth, the number of poor people in the population has fallen.
c) In 2013,the poor accounted for 42% of the world’s population.
d) It leads to loss in confidence.
e) All of the above
Directions (6-8): Choose the word/group of words which is most opposite in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
Directions (9-10): Choose the word/group of words which is most similar in meaning to the word/group of words printed in bold as used in the passage.
1). E 2). D 3). C 4). A 5). B 6). D 7). E 8). A 9). B 10). C