SBI PO Prelims English (Day-04)

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Reading Comprehension

Directions (1-5): Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

The palette of sights and sounds that reach the conscious mind are not neutral perceptions that people then evaluate: they come with a value already tacked onto them by the brain‘s processing mechanisms. Testsshow that these evaluations are immediate and unconscious and applied even to things people have never encountered before, like nonsensewords: ―juvalamu is intensely pleasing and ―bargulum moderately so, but ―chakaka is loathed by English-speakers. These conclusion comefrom psychologists who have developed a test for measuring the likesand dislikes created in the moment of perceiving a word, sound orpicture. The findings, if confirmed, have possibly unsettling implicationsfor people‘s ability to think and behave objectively. This is all part ofpreconscious processing, the mind‘s perception and organization ofinformation that goes on before it reaches awareness—these judgmentsare lightning fast in the first moment of contact between the world andthe mind.

Some scientists disagree with the claim that virtually every perceptioncarries with it an automatic judgment, though they, too, find that suchevaluations are made in many circumstances. These scientists believethat people don‘t have automatic attitudes for everything, but rather, forareas of interest.In responding to a stimulus, a signal most likely travels first to theverbal cortex, then to the amygdala, where the effect is added, and thenback. The circuitry involved can do all this in a matter of a hundredmilliseconds or so, long before there is conscious awareness of the word.This creates an initial predisposition that gets things off on a positive ornegative footing. These reactions have the power to largely determinethe course of a social interaction by defining the psychological reality ofthe situation from the start.The ―quick-and-dirty judgment tends to be more predictive of howpeople actually behave than is their conscious reflection on the topic.

Thismay represent a new, more subtle tool for research on people‘s attitudes,allowing scientists to assess what people feel without their having anyidea of what exactly is being tested. You could detect socially sensitiveattitudes people are reluctant to admit, like ethnic biases because theseautomatic judgments occur outside a person‘s awareness, as part of aninitial perception. They are trusted in the same way senses are trusted,not realizing that seemingly neutral first perceptions are already biased.Conclusions from both camps are based on a method that allows themto detect subtle evaluations made within the first 250 milliseconds—aquarter of a second—of perception of words. The measurement of likingcan be made outside the person‘s awareness because if the first word is presented in less than a quarter of a second the reaction to it neverregisters in consciousness, though it can still be read.

1) According to the passage and with regards to words like bargulum, juvalamu,and chakaka, ―preconscious processing would most influence whichof the following?

A) Subconscious memories concerning traumatic childhood events

B) Perception of a stranger on first sighting

C) Formulation of arguments after intense research

D) Thought processes involved in creating an intricate novel

E) Reuniting with one‘s children after a long trip overseas

2) Scientists that disagree with the idea that humans place a value on allperceptions would most likely agree with which of the following statements?

A) Most perceptions receive a value due to a familiarity with the stimulus.

B) The mind cannot possibly interpret information in an interval as shortas a quarter of a second.

C) Preconscious processing would have no effect on behaviour patterns.

D) The senses are not used when placing a value on stimuli presentedduring an experiment.

E) Some perceptions are too valuable to actually put a value on

3) Based on information in the passage, in the author’s view, which of thefollowing statements is NOT true?

A) Information regarding external stimuli is processed so quickly that itdoes not become part of our conscious awareness.

B) Automatic judgments occur on stimuli with which there is greatfamiliarity.

C) Nonsense words have little or no effect on a person‘s mood.

D) Ethnic biases may be influenced by attitudes of which we areunaware.

E) The measurement of liking could be made outside of a person‘s Awareness

4) What is the meaning of ‘predisposition’?

A) narrow

B) healthy

C) affluent

D) weakness

E) none of the above

5) What is the antonym of ‘assess’?

A) neglect

B) appraise

C) judge

D) determine

E) none of the above

Theme based set

Direction (6-10): In each of the following questions four of the five sentences contribute to the main idea of the paragraph. Find the sentence which does not contribute to the main idea of the paragraph.

6)

(I) Bedrooms should be devoid of clutter and have adequate lighting.

(II) Light sensitive night lights canmake getting up in the middle of the night safer.

(III) For electronics such as lights, radios and televisions,remote controls will help you to avoid getting up anddown unnecessarily.

(IV) Minimizing clutter andensuring ample space around the bed is alsoimportant.

(V) Comforters or blankets should be wellfit so they are not dragging on the floor.

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

E) V

7)  

(I) The Oregon State permits only assisted suicide -the prescribing doctor cannot even be there whenthe patient takes the lethal potion, usuallybarbiturates.

(II) The patient must be adult, mentallycompetent, and “terminally ill” having a lifeexpectancy of six months of less.

(III) The Bushadministration is challenging Oregon’s law, saying itviolates federal drug rules.

(IV) There is norequirement of “unbearable suffering”.

(V) Twowritten requests for assistance must be made,separated by a 15-day interval.

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

E) V

8)

(I) Giacomo Rizzoiatti, neuroscientist at the University of Parma in Italy who studies the origins oflanguage, says the game is interesting because itshows the importance of imitation in language development.

(II) The birth of a new language is sucha rare event that t-scientists who want to watch ithappen generally have to make do !with computersimulations.

(III) Bruno Gaiantucci, a cognitivescientist at 9 Yale University in America, has -developed a human alternative, based on theprinciple that necessity is the mother of invention.

(IV) He asks pairs of strangers to play a computer game in which they have to find one another in avirtual bungalow.

(V) This requires them tocommunicate, but the only way they can do so is byinventing a language.

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

E) V

9)

(I) “In the future, the only thing that will get readis something that will be online.

(II) MSN is initiallyscanning only books from the British Library that are

out of copyright.

(III) If it isn’t online, it doesn’t exist”,proclaims the director of content partnerships atGoogle.

(IV) Yet for search companies such as Google,Yahoo! and Microsoft’s MSN, digitising books isparticularly important because it represents the next

critical phase of the industry.

(V) Most of the web hasalready been scanned and indexed— there arealready between 8 billion and 10 billion items online.

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

E) V

10)

(I) Despite the fact that it is difficult to study in another language, the rewards will probably last alifetime.

(II) Studying at an English medium universityin countries that are non- English speaking is a goodthing if students want to have more job opportunitiesafter graduation,

(III) Many people prefer theseuniversities because the world is becoming a globalvillage and employers are requiring employees tospeak more than one language.

(IV) As a result,applicants who don’t have enough qualifications areunlikely to have a good future

(V) Furthermore,graduates who communicate well in English will findit easier to get jobs abroad as well as in their owncountry.

A) I

B) II

C) III

D) IV

E) V

Answers :

Directions (1-5) :

1) Answer: B

From reading the lines,

“Testsshow that these evaluations are immediate and unconscious and applied even to things people have never encountered before, like nonsensewords: ―juvalamu is intensely pleasing and ―bargulum moderately so, but ―chakaka is loathed by English-speakers. These conclusion comefrom psychologists who have developed a test for measuring the likesand dislikes created in the moment of perceiving a word, sound orpicture. The findings, if confirmed, have possibly unsettling implicationsfor people‘s ability to think and behave objectively. This is all part of preconscious processing, the mind‘s perception and organization ofinformation that goes on before it reaches awareness—these judgmentsare lightning fast in the first moment of contact between the world andthe mind…”

this question can be answered.

2) Answer: A

From the lines,

“Some scientists disagree with the claim that virtually every perceptioncarries with it an automatic judgment, though they, too, find that suchevaluations are made in many circumstances. These scientists believethat people don‘t have automatic attitudes for everything, but rather, forareas of interest.In responding to a stimulus, a signal most likely travels first to theverbal cortex, then to the amygdala, where the effect is added, and thenback…”;

this question can be answered.

3) Answer: C

From the lines,

‘Testsshow that these evaluations are immediate and unconscious and applied even to things people have never encountered before, like nonsensewords: ―juvalamu is intensely pleasing and ―bargulum moderately so, but ―chakaka is loathed by English-speakers. These conclusion comefrom psychologists who have developed a test for measuring the likesand dislikes created in the moment of perceiving a word, sound orpicture. The findings, if confirmed, have possibly unsettling implicationsfor people‘s ability to think and behave objectively..’.

this question can be answered.

4) Answer: D

predisposition- a liability or tendency to suffer from a particular condition, hold a particular attitude, or act in a particular way.

5) Answer: A

assess- evaluate or estimate the nature, ability, or quality of.

Directions (6-10) :

6) Answer: C

“For electronics such as lights, radios and televisions,remote controls will help you to avoid getting up anddown unnecessarily.”- is the sentence which does not fit into the theme of the given set of sentences.

7) Answer: C

“The Bushadministration is challenging Oregon’s law, saying itviolates federal drug rules.”- is the sentence which does not fit into the theme of the given set of sentences.

8) Answer: C

“Bruno Gaiantucci, a cognitivescientist at 9 Yale University in America, has -developed a human alternative, based on theprinciple that necessity is the mother of invention.”- is the sentence which does not fit into the theme of the given set of sentences.

9) Answer: B

“MSN is initiallyscanning only books from the British Library that areout of copyright.”- is the sentence which does not fit into the theme of the given set of sentences.

10) Answer: B

“Studying at an English medium universityin countries that are non- English speaking is a goodthing if students want to have more job opportunitiesafter graduation.”- is the sentence which does not fit into the theme of the given set of sentences.

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